1) Vast amounts
of lead are required to create the batteries needed
to power huge numbers of electric cars. American
researchers have suggested that emissions from
mining, smelting and the recycling of this lead
would expose thousands of people living or working
close to production sites to near toxic levels of
A) It is the insidious nature of air pollution and
the inability of researchers to eliminate other
factors and prove that the toxic cocktail of
chemicals in our air is a direct health risk, which
has led to muddled action by governments, worldwide.
B) Traditional lead-acid batteries appear to have
the highest efficiency rates, but lead is one of the
world's deadliest pollutants.
C) If only five per cent of America's 200 million
vehicles were powered by lead-based batteries, an
extra 21,000 tons of lead would be released into the
D) The more high-tech combinations, like nickel
cadmium, lithium polymer, sodium sulphur or zinc-air
present environmental spillage problems, not to
mention their high costs.
E) The two per cent scheme will not effectively
control pollution because it only transfers it from
the car to the power station.
2) Black Spider is poisonous spider of the genus
Latrodec, found throughout North and South America
and common in the southwest United States. The name
derives from the fact that the female, like those of
many other spider species, may eat the male after
mating. The adult is black with a red or
reddish-orange hourglass-shaped marking on the lower
abdominal surface. The female is somewhat less than
1.5 cm long, and the male is much smaller. ________.
Occasional fatal cases, which result from
respiratory paralysis, are usually limited to
A) Their bites are extremely dangerous and fatal
even for adults.
B) It's bright colour easily let us know whether a
spider is fatal.
C) It's almost impossible to guess what a Black
Spider might cause when it bites animals.
D) Since the male Black Spider is longer, it can
E) The bite venom is a neurotoxin and may cause a
severe reaction with intense local pain that spreads
to other parts of the body.
3) Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood
upon the walls of the arteries. The pressure in the
arteries originates in the pumping action of the
heart, and pressure waves can be felt at the wrist
and at other points where arteries lie near the
surface of the body. Since the heart can pump blood
into the large arteries more quickly than it can be
absorbed and released by the tiny arterioles and
capillaries, considerable inner pressure always
exists in the arteries. The contraction of the heart
causes the blood pressure to rise to its highest
point, and relaxation of the heart brings the
pressure down to its lowest point. ________ It
diminishes progressively in the smaller blood
vessels and reaches its lowest point in the veins
A) Blood pressure is strongest in the aorta, where
the blood leaves the heart.
B) This contraction is a vital process for the body.
C) High blood pressure is a serious problem
especially for elder people.
D) Low blood pressure is as dangerous as high blood
pressure for both and young people.
E) Blood veins have no function as far as the blood
pressure is concerned.
4) . Blueprint is a white-on-blue photographic
print, commonly of a working drawing used during
building or manufacturing. The plan is first drawn
to scale on a special paper or tracing cloth through
which light can penetrate. The drawing is then
placed over blueprint paper, prepared with a mixture
of potassium fericcanade and ammonium ferric
citrate. When the attached drawing and the blueprint
paper are exposed to a strong light, the unprotected
ferric salt not lying beneath the lines of the
drawing is changed to a ferrous salt that reacts
with the fericcanade to form Turnbull's blue.
________, The ferric salt under the lines of the
drawing, protected from the light, remains and is
dissolved during the washing in water that follows
exposure. As a result, the lines of the original
drawing appear white in the finished blueprint.
A) Strong light might spoil the blueprint, so it
should be kept in dark.
B) Blueprint is widely utilized in architecture,
engineering, and art.
C) This blue is the background of the finished
D) In order to avoid strong light, all the process
is carried out in carefully designed dark rooms.
E) Preparing blueprints entails a know-how in this
5) . Bolshevik Ballet is one of the principal ballet
companies of Russia. It is a part of the Bolshevik
Theatre, which also includes Russia's premier opera
company. ________ The Bolshevik Theatre, which
opened permanently in 1856, in its early decades
competed for pre-eminence with the Melinsky Theatre
of St. Petersburg. Alexander Gorsky revitalized the
dance company in the early 20th century and
introduced a new dramatic realism to the classical
ballets. Igor Molanev experimented with folk-dance
ballets at the Bolshevik in the 1930s. The company
is internationally acclaimed for its superb ensemble
skills and for the spectacular realism of its
scenery and costumes.
A) Its performances are only held in the royal
palace located in St. Petersburg.
B) The costumes of the Bolshevik Ballet have been
prepared by French fashion designers for years.
C) The Bolshevik Ballet plays only for the Russian
D) It is famous for its performances held in
Broadway, New York
E) The Bolshevik Ballet began as a dancing school
for the Moscow Orphanage in 1773.
6) . Elongation is the angular distance between two
points in the sky as measured from a third point.
________ When a planet lies on the line drawn from
the earth to the sun, its elongation is 0° and is
said to be in conjunction. When a planet's
elongation is 90°, it is in quadrate. When its
elongation is 180°, it is in opposition. Elongation
is measured east or west from the sun. The superior
planets can have elongations between 0° and 180°;
the elongations of the inferior planets are limited
by their proximity to the sun. The greatest
elongation of Mercury is 28°, and of Venus, 47°.
A) Superior planet is the one whose orbit lies
outside that of the earth.
B) For instance, if the reference point is the earth
and the sun is one of the bodies, a planet is in
quadrate when its elongation is 90°.
C) The elongation of a planet is usually measured as
the angular distance from the sun to the planet as
measured from the earth.
D) As viewed from the earth, the half-moon is in
quadrate to the sun.
E) The inferior planets (Mercury and Venus) never
7) . One of the largest of the border cities. El
Paso is a blend of the United States and Mexico. Its
history closely linked to that of Juarez. In the
16th and 17th century, missionaries, soldiers, and
traders came here. Although missions were founded at
Ysleta and elsewhere north of the river, the major
settlement was on the south bank.________
A) As a result of the settlement in 1967 of the
Chamizal border dispute, a small area of El Paso was
transferred to Mexico.
B) Ysleta del Sur Pueblo was established in 1681 by
refugees from a bloody American Indian uprising that
expelled Spanish and Christian Indians from present
C) Because of the infrequent rains in El Paso, water
is stored in natural rock basins. 26 miles east of
D) Dioramas depict ancient American Indian Tribes of
E) Chamizal National Memorial in El Paso cites the
amicable settlement made between the US and Mexico
over the long-standing border dispute.
8) . E-mail is the electronic transmission of
messages and documents. ________ It is commonly
thought of, however, in terms of computer-based
message systems where the electronic text file that
is received can be edited, replied to, excerpted, or
even pasted into another electronic document that
can be used or manipulated by a word processor,
desktop publishing system, or other computer
A) For example, extensions to e-mail allow the user
to add graphics and sound to messages.
B) In its broadest sense electronic mail includes
point-to-point services such as telegraph and
C) Users of such systems can broadcast messages to
multiple recipients, read and discard messages, file
and retrieve messages, or forward messages to other
D) Often there are several stages in the development
of an e-mail relationship.
E) Each of these moves towards becoming more real to
the e-mail partner is a significant turning point in
9) . Desktop publishing is a system for producing
printed materials. ________ It has a computer
program that allows the user to choose from a
variety of type fonts and sizes, column
justifications, page layouts, and graphics
libraries. It also includes support for document
creation and editing. Desktop publishing enables a
small business or an individual to produce
professional-quality materials on the premises
inexpensively and quickly without the need for
outside typesetting or printing facilities.
A) Prepress Graphic Professionals provides client
specific project solutions for customers in the
print and internet markets
B) Computerfield Computer Institute offers
information about computer courses including desktop
and web publishing, design and programming.
C) As long as there are designers, printers,
newbies, or veterans who have a question on a new
desktop publishing technology, we will continue to
be the source for you to come to.
D) The Cleveland Desktop Publishing Users Group is a
non-profit organization that was founded to provide
educational information about desktop publishing.
E) Such a system consists of a personal computer or
computer workstation, and a high-resolution printer.
10) . Until the 16th century any formal
communication or negotiation among nations was
conducted either by means of ambassadors specially
appointed for a particular mission or by direct
correspondence among heads of states. This procedure
was not always satisfactory. ________ . One of the
first powers to do this was Venice, which in 1596
appointed two merchants as representatives in London
because the journey to England was very long and
very dangerous. Other countries later followed suit.
A) Embassy processing is the procedure whereby you
go to the appropriate United States Consulate to get
your applications processed for either your Lawful
Permanent Residence or for a myriad of different
types of work permits.
B) For this reason, by the mid-17th century several
countries had established permanent representatives
in foreign states.
C) One of our immigration attorneys who is familiar
with embassy practice can accompany you to the
interview and help with every aspect of the
D) There are numerous immigration laws that could
result in the denial of this visa if not properly
E) If the petition is put together correctly and
professionally by a qualified immigration law firm,
the chances of approval is greatly increased.
11) . In the 19th century there have been numerous
meetings of heads of state and foreign ministers and
various types of international conferences.
________. Moreover, some claim that modern
communications have also changed diplomacy greatly
by removing whatever autonomy diplomats may once
have had in making policy decisions. The possibility
of telephone or other direct contact with a superior
has allegedly reduced diplomats to quasi-messengers.
Even if this may appear true, diplomats continue to
serve as expert advisers. Although they are not
empowered to make final decisions, they greatly
influence the decision-making process.
A) All these have tended to lessen the traditional
B) Foreign Ministers of the G7 and the
representative of the European Commission met in
London on 8 May, as a part of the preparations for
the Birmingham Summit, 15-17 May.
C) Foreign Ministers of these nations reviewed
recent developments in the world economy.
D) Foreign Minister of the United States also noted
that the United States economy required vigilance to
stay on a sustainable path.
E) Some foreign ministers states that globalization
brings clear benefits to people throughout the world
but it also brings certain risks.
12) . Embezzlement is the wrongful use, for one's
own selfish ends, of the property of another when
that property has been legally entrusted to one.
Such an act was not larceny at common law because
larceny was committed only when property was
acquired by a "felonious taking." ____________As a
consequence of this, unfaithful servants, employees,
agents, trustees, or guardians who misappropriated
another's property could be sued only in the civil
courts. It is because although the defendant had
legally come into possession of the property, he had
breached his trust by wrongfully misappropriating it
to his own use.
A) Consequences for the conviction of embezzlement
may potentially include imprisonment, probation or
parole, and loss of right to be bonded.
B) In other words, it was considered larceny when
the act was committed with respect to property that
was at the time in the legal possession of the
C) Defences of Embezzlement may potentially include
insufficient evidence, factual innocence, and true
D) This statement is intended to give you a very
general understanding of what is involved in
E) Forgery is the crime of creating a false
document, altering a document, or writing a false
signature for the illegal benefit of the person
making the forgery.
13) . _________ Impact printers use a mechanical
hammering device to produce each character. A formed
character printer forces metal or plastic characters
against an inked ribbon to produce a sharp image on
paper; the characters may be on a moving bar, a
rapidly rotating chain, a routable ball, or wheel
spokes. A dot matrix printer uses a matrix of tiny
pegs that, when hit from behind against a ribbon,
impart a set of dots to form a character on the
paper; a wide variety of characters and graphics is
created using different dot combinations. Although
noisy, impact printers can produce multiple copies
of business forms simultaneously using carbon or
A) The story of print is a long and complex one. ,
B) In 1980, IBM introduced the IBM 4800 laser
printer, capable of printing 25,000 lines per
C) Hewlett-Packard began shipping the HP LaserJet 6
line of laser printers in 1998.
D) Some historians suggest that print was
instrumental in bringing about all the major shifts
in science, religion.
E) Printer is a computer output device that
reproduces data on paper or another medium.
14) . _________ In its widest explanation, the
embryo is the young from the moment of fertilization
until it has become structurally complete and able
to survive as separate organism. As an embryo, , the
young animal may undergo metamorphosis or may remain
wholly dependent on the mother for some time after
birth. Since the seedling derives nourishment from
food stored in its fleshy cotyledons even after it
has sprouted, the exact limit of the time during
which an organism is an embryo has not generally
been well defined.
A) Embryo is the name for the developing young of an
animal or plant.
B) The first successful Embryo Transfer took place
in England in the 1890's by a fellow named Walter
Heap whose subjects were rabbits.
C) Embryology deals with the period from
fertilization until the hatching or birth of an
animal or the germination of a plant.
D) Embryo Transfer is basically, multiple injections
of hormone to stimulate and multiply the ovulations
in the cow that you want to get the embryos.
E) Farmers can use their best bulls over their best
cow or heifer and get a good calf whereas now the
farmer can run an embryo program and possibly get a
life times' production with one flush.
15) . Computer is a device capable of performing a
series of arithmetic or logical operations. A
computer is distinguished from a calculating
machine, such as an electronic calculator, by being
able to store a computer program, by the number and
complexity of the operations it can perform, and by
its ability to process, store, and retrieve data
without human intervention. Computers developed
along two separate engineering paths, producing two
distinct types of computer-analog and digital.
A) Computer historians tend to be computer adepts -
which has made the Web into one of the richest
available resources for computer history.
B) Dr. Douglas Engel, titan of human-computer
interaction and the inventor of the mouse, has
received the third annual Lemel-MIT Prize for
American Innovation, which includes an award of
C) An analog computer operates on continuously
varying data; a digital computer performs operations
on discrete data.
D) In 1965, three years before Intel was founded,
Gordon Moore noticed that computer microchip
capacity seemed to double every 18 to 24 months.
E) The 1997 Vintage Computer Festival, celebrating
the twentieth anniversary of the good old Apple Ü,
was held in Pleasanton CA on Saturday.
16) . ________ This event involves the union of two
unlike sex cells, the sperm and the ovum, followed
by the joining of their nuclei. In the flowers of
higher plants, the process occurs after pollination
has enabled the sperm to contact the egg cell in the
plant's ovary. In lower plants and in animals the
sperm is actively motile and swims to the egg
through an external aqueous medium or through a
fluid environment within the reproductive tract of
the female. The fundamental principle of
fertilization is the same in all organisms.
A) If you have only one testis, your sexual
performance or ability to have children will not be
affected as long as the other testis is healthy.
B) Infertility is a disease of the reproductive
system that affects the male or female with almost
C) Fertilization is a process in the reproduction of
both plants and animals.
D) Many fertilizer products are available to provide
trees with the appropriate nutrients.
E) Inorganic fertilizers are usually highly soluble
and are more rapidly available to the plant than
17) . Within the biosphere-the total expanse of
water, land, and atmosphere able to sustain life-the
basic ecological unit is the ecosystem._______. Each
ecosystem consists of a community of plants and
animals in an environment that supplies them with
raw materials for life, i.e., chemical elements and
water. The ecosystem is delimited by the climate,
altitude, water and soil characteristics, and other
physical conditions of the environment.
A) An ecosystem may be as small as a tidal pool or a
rotting log or as large as an ocean or a
B) Unfortunately, human beings have gradually been
destroying the ecosystem they live in.
C) Ecosystem has been irreparably damaged by the
hole in the Ozone layer.
D) Earth watch , a non-profit environmental
organization, has been founded to save our ecosystem
on the planet Earth.
E) Unfortunately, non-governmental environmental
organizations (NGOs) do not receive any financial
support to save the ecosystem from the governments
in many countries.
18) . E-commerce is a developing type of commerce
conducted over the Internet, most often via the
World Wide Web. E-commerce can apply to purchases
made through the Web or to business-to-business
activities such as inventory transfers. A customer
can order items from a vendor's Web site, paying
with a credit card or with a previously established
cyber cash- account. ________. Personal and account
information is kept confidential through the use of
secured transactions that use encryption technology.
A) Many people are still sceptical about the
B) The transaction information is transmitted to a
financial institution for payment clearance and to
the vendor for order fulfilment.
C) E-commerce has gained a great popularity in the
world because it is very practical.
D) E-commerce is a result of the development of the
electronic products enabling electronic
E) E-commerce has been criticized by economists all
over the world.
19) . Senior research officer of the China
Federation of Youth Groups Pang Kin -fu suspects
teenage pregnancy is on the rise. ______. One
quarter said they consented to sex after repeated
requests from their boyfriends. And more than half
didn't use any contraception due to their partner's
objection, lack of knowledge or motivation to take
A) It is unknown how many have obtained abortions
B) Teenagers are very curious about sex, but they
are under-educated in the area," says Kwok.
C) Traditional gender differences are similarly
reflected in males and females attitude towards sex.
D) The youth group also found eight of the 25 girls
interviewed were only 14 when they became pregnant.
E) In its First mini-survey of its kind, the
Federation interviewed 25 young women, aged from 13
to 20, between December and March this year, who
became pregnant in their teens.
20) . A total solar eclipse can occur only when the
moon is in Its new phase.________ At the onset of
totality, parts of the sun may be seen shining
brightly between the high points of the moon's
irregular edge, a phenomenon known as Bail's beads;
the disk of the moon appears black and is surrounded
by the sun's corona, out of which shoot immense,
flame like spurts called prominences. The sky
darkens to twilight, the brightest stars become
visible, and there is a noticeable drop in
temperature. Bail's beads are seen again as the sun
reappears and the sky grows lighter.
A) Therefore, solar eclipse had been considered as
the curse of deities by primitive tribes before it
was explained by Egyptian astrologists.
B) For this reason, total eclipse can only be
observed using specially designed sunglasses or it
might cause total or partial blindness.
C) At this time, ancient Egyptians used to believe
that Ra, the deity of sun, calls for sacrifice for
D) At this time the moon is between the sun and the
earth and cannot be seen until it moves across the
E) Because of this, many observatories were built
all over the world to predict the catastrophes.
21) -Children with specific health conditions have
more and more opportunities to have fun at camps
designed for their needs. Campers can enjoy
canoeing, crafts and drama while medical staff and
services are available at all times. Space may be
limited, so families should book early. _____.
A) Since camps may be offered in certain locations
only, travel may be required.
B) These camps are usually dangerous for small kids.
C) Campers should leave nothing but their
D) Campers should take nothing but photographs
E) The camp doctors are real experts in their areas.
22) . ______. A day devoted to the celebration of
motherhood is a wonderful idea - a day when we can
let mothers know how much we appreciate them. But
the pressure of finding the perfect Mother's Day
gift leaves many of us in a panic.
A) These days are expected to be cooler than usual.
B) At the Christmas time, shops are full of gifts.
C) We all love our mothers.
D) During the Mothers' Day, children should do what
their mothers ask.
E) Mothers' Day has a long tradition.
23) . To get yourself going, you must conclude that
the advantages of exercise far outweigh the
disadvantages. _____ Here are a few of the dozens of
reasons you could put in the pro column: exercise
reduces your risk of developing heart disease; it
helps you manage stress; it increases your ability
to withstand cold and resist upper-respiratory
infections; and, as if that's not enough, a recent
study on sedentary men shows that exercise enhanced
their sexual desire, performance and satisfaction.
A) Exercise can be harmful for the ones who have
B) A healthy diet can easily replace exercise.
C) Exercise should be done under the supervision of
D) Draw up a balance sheet, listing both the pros
and cons of exercise.
E) In cold weathers, exercise will save you.
24) . The festival has its origins in the middle
ages and the race has been run every July 2nd and
August 16th for at least 600 years. ______. These
contrade are represented by a symbol. There is much
more to the festival than the race itself,
though-feasting, the blessing of the horse inside
the contrade's church, elaborate parades, music and
medieval costumes are all elements that add to it's
A) Festivals are supported locally.
B) These fests are usually organized between rival
C) People are rather enthusiastic for these events
D) These kinds of festivals are quite common in the
E) The festival has a complicated structure-the
horse race is a competition between seventeen
neighbourhoods or contrade.
25) . Obsidian is a magazine about folklore and
magic. It applies the lore of the ancients to the
modern search for meaning in a technological world.
Whether that meaning is reflected in the roots of
things, in wisdom and knowledge, in myth and legend,
or in moonlit mystery, you will find it here.
A) Each idea-filled issue focuses on a particular
area of knowledge and lore.
B) Magazines are popular readings among young
C) Mystery is in human nature.
D) Some people never read newspapers but magazines.
E) The circulation of such magazines is rather high.