1) . WWW is a collected works of globally
distributed text and multimedia documents and files
and other network services linked in such a way as
to create an immense electronic library from which
information can be retrieved quickly by intuitive
searches. The Web represents the application of
hypertext technology and a graphical interface to
the Internet to retrieve information that is
contained in specially formatted documents that may
reside in the same computer or be distributed across
many computers around the world. ________ As it's
name suggests, it is made up of many sites, all
linked together, with users travelling from one site
to the next by clicking a computer's pointing device
on a hyperlink.
A) During 1989/90, the WWW is 20 years old and still
primarily a network dominated by students and
B) The World Wide Web exists in 1989 at first only
as an idea of a few scientists at the Swiss research
institute CERN in Geneva.
C) The result is called the Web.
D) The Internet demonstrates its full potential as a
publishing medium, and for the first time, it
becomes clear that the WWW is not a toy for nerds
but has instead become an effective mass medium.
E) In January 1998, Matt Drudge publishes early
reports of Bill Clinton's adventures with a White
House intern at his gossip site, Drudge Report, and
sets off a tidal wave of journalistic furore,
culminating with the impeachment of the president at
the end of the year.
2) . Pancake is thin, flat cake, made of batter and
baked on a griddle or fried in a pan. Pancakes,
probably the oldest form of bread, are known in
different forms throughout the world. _________. Old
English batter was mixed with ale. German and French
pancakes, leavened toy eggs and much beating, are
baked very thin and served with jam or jelly. In the
United States pancakes are sometimes called hatter
cakes, griddlecakes, or flapjacks and are usually
leavened with baking powder or baking soda and are
served with syrup.
A) The shell of a Pancake tortoise is very flexible
and can be bent and depressed with only mild
pressure, allowing the tortoise to squeeze into very
B) It seems impossible that the friendly little
competition between Liberal and Olney, England, with
women running down the streets of each town flipping
pancakes, has lasted so long.
C) A Pancake Day History book has been published,
and we now have a chronological account of the event
since it started.
D) The relative ease of baking on hot stoves or on a
griddle has resulted in a variety of pancakes.
E) Pancake tortoises are confined to a small natural
range in south-eastern Africa occurring in Kenya and
3) . ________ Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create her
as vengeance upon man and his benefactor,
Prometheus. The gods endowed her with every charm,
together with curiosity and deceit. Zeus sent her as
a wife to Epimetheus, Prometheus' simple brother,
and gave her a "box that he forbade her to open.
Despite Prometheus' warnings, Epimetheus allowed her
to open the box and let out all the evils that have
since afflicted man. Hope alone remained inside the
A) Hera's status as wife and mother also serves as
the divine model for the role of women in human
B) According to Greek mythology, Pandora \vas the
first woman on earth.
C) Just as the other deities had their own personal
foibles, Zeus too had a weakness^- he was
passionately fond of female charms'.
D) As the ruler of the Olympian gods, Zeus wielded
enormous power and almost absolute authority.
E) She was made in heaven, every god contributing
something to perfect her.
4) . Papal election is carried by the college of
cardinals meeting in secret conclave in the Sistine
Chapel not less than 15 nor more than 18 days after
the death of the previous pontiff. The election is
by secret ballot; Pius XII fixed the electoral
majority at two thirds plus one vote. The election
itself confers on the new pope full jurisdiction; no
further formality is necessary. The elected pope may
decline; if so, the balloting resumes. The secrecy
of the conclave is assured by shutting off the
cardinals completely from the outside world, and at
one time expedition was encouraged by severe
restriction of the cardinals' diet after a few days.
________ Thus, white smoke signifies that a new pope
has been chosen.
A) After each session the paper ballots are burned;
if the vote is inconclusive straw is added to
produce black smoke.
B) The voting procedure itself no longer allows a
spontaneous and unanimous vote for one candidate.
C) The right to elect the Roman Pontiff belongs
exclusively to the Cardinals of Holy Roman Church,
with the exception of those who have reached their
eightieth birthday before the day of the Roman
Pontiffs death or the day when the Apostolic See
D) A Cardinal of Holy Roman Church who has been
created and published before the College of
Cardinals thereby has the right to elect the Pope.
E) If on the other hand a Cardinal elector is
constrained to leave Vatican City because of
illness, the election can proceed without asking for
5) . Paper is believed to have been invented by
Ts'ai Lun circal05 in China, where it reached an
advanced state of development. _________ Papermaking
spread to Japan circa 610 and to Samarqand c.751,
whence it was introduced by the Arabs into Egypt
c.900 and by the Moors into Spain at Jativa c.1150.
Mills were established in Italy c.1276; in France,
c.1348; in Germany, 1390; and in England, 1495.
European paper was usually made of flax and hemp.
Primitive bark paper had been made in Mexico and
Central America in pre-Columbian times. Paper was
first produced in the American colonies in 1690 by
William Rittenhouse at Germantown.
A) Early people discovered that they could make
simple drawings on the walls of caves, which was a
great place for recording thoughts, but wasn't
B) About 5,000 years ago, Egyptians created "sheets"
of papyrus by harvesting, peeling and slicing the
plant into strips.
C) Although paper was of fairly high quality now,
the only way to reproduce written work was by hand,
a painstaking process.
D) Chinese paper was a mixture of bark and hemp.
E) This method of printing in large quantities led
to a rapid increase in the demand for paper.
6) . Papyrus is now almost extinct in Egypt but so
universally used there in antiquity as to be the
hieroglyphic symbol for Lower Egypt and a common
motif in art. The roots were used as fuel; the pith
was eaten. ________ This writing material, which was
also called papyrus, was formed into sheets by
laying lengthwise slices of the sedge side by side
in two layers at right angles and pressing them
together with an adhesive probably composed of their
own juices and Nile water. The sheets were glued end
to end and rolled on wooden rods to form
A) Only the climate of Egypt and certain parts of
Mesopotamia favours the preservation of papyri in
the debris of ancient towns and cemeteries.
B) Most Duke papyri were written during the
millennium of Greek and Roman control of Egypt,
which lasted from the late fourth century BC until
the middle of the seventh century AD.
C) The stem was employed for sandals, boats, twine,
boxes, mats, sails, cloth and most notably as a
D) Papyrus texts can be as varied as texts in our
E) The task of the papyrologist is not only to
decipher, transcribe and edit what is preserved, but
also to reconstruct what is lost between fragments
and reconstruct the whole.
7) . Paranoia is a term denoting persistent,
unalterable, systematized, logically reasoned
delusions, or false beliefs, usually of persecution
or grandeur. In the former case the paranoiac
creates a complex delusional system that purports to
show that people want to hurt him; in the latter, he
sees himself as an exalted person with a mission of
great importance. ________ The term paranoia was
first used by German psychiatrist Karl L. Kahlbaum
in 1863. The condition, often known as delusional
disorder, is found among individuals suffering from
paranoid schizophrenia, paranoid personality
disorder, and any of several paranoid disorders.
A) Little research has been done on the role of
heredity in causing paranoia.
B) Erotic delusions are based on the belief that one
is romantically loved by another, usually someone of
higher status or a well-known public figure.
C) Anyone in a new situation-beginning a job or
starting a relationship, for example-is cautious and
somewhat guarded until he or she learns that the
fears are groundless.
D) Paranoia is a term used by mental health
specialists to describe suspiciousness (or mistrust)
that is either highly exaggerated or not warranted
E) Other types of delusions include somatic
delusions, as in the case of hypochondria, and
8) . Parasite is a plant or an animal that at some
stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from
another living organism called the host. ________
They include members of many plant and animal
groups, and nearly all living things are at some
time hosts to parasitic forms. Many bacteria are
parasitic on external and internal body surfaces;
some of these invade the inner tissues and cause
disease. Parasitic plants cause great losses among
food crops and trees.
A) Parasites may or may not harm the host, but they
never benefit it.
B) Most people make every effort to keep the inside
of their houses spotlessly clean.
C) A microscopic parasites can get into your joints
and eat the calcium linings of the bone.
D) Ironically, most medical doctors in practice have
no idea that this knowledge on parasites applies to
their own patients.
E) Unfortunately, most of the health experts and
practitioners I have talked to in the last 15 years
have never mentioned parasites.
9) . Parcel post is sending of packages through the
mail service. At the congress of the Universal
Postal Union in Paris in 1878, an international
parcel-post system was established. The British
parcel-post bill, passed in 1882, put into effect
the following year domestic, colonial, and foreign
services. ______o For example, the United States
entered into conventions with other governments to
convey parcels sent into the country but delayed
instituting a domestic service until the Parcel Post
Act of 1912: A water route for parcel post was
started in 1917, and a fleet of trucks was put into
operation in the East the next year.
A) The United States Post Office insures domestic
mail and international parcel post shipments up to
B) UPS Logistics Group, a subsidiary of United
Parcel Service, is taking the first step towards
providing fully automated, self-service parts
C) Various other countries established such systems.
D) United Parcel Service Inc., is a 93-year-old
company whose history spans the bicycle to the
E) As part of its commitment to education, the UPS
Foundation has given special attention to adult and
family literacy programs.
10) . Harijans are untouchable individuals who are
at the bottom of or outside the Hindu caste system
in India. They were traditionally sweepers, washers
of clothes, leatherworkers, and those whose
occupation was to kill animals. __________
Originally called untouchables or pariahs, they were
given the name Harijans by the Indian political and
religious leader Mahatma Gandhi, who worked for many
years to improve their lives.
A) As new economy and skills came into the picture,
the castes, or varnas, were divided again and again.
B) The term is also sometimes applied to the hill
tribes of India, who are considered unclean by some
because they eat beef.
C) The caste law was abolished in 1949, but it still
remains a significant part of the Indian world.
D) The Brahmins, the highest level of castes, were
the priests and the educated ones.
E) With this law in order, higher caste members were
able to conquer the lands of the lower caste
11) . Paris is the centre of many major newspapers
and periodicals, as well as all the major French
radio and television stations. Elegant stores and
hotels, lavish nightclubs, theatres, and gourmet
restaurants help make tourism the biggest industry
in Paris. Heavy industry, notably automobile
manufacture, is located in the suburbs. About one
quarter of the French labour force is concentrated
in the Paris area.
A) Other leading industries manufacture luxury
articles, high-fashion clothing, perfume, and
B) The Eiffel Tower with its 3 floors, is 317 meters
high and carries the capital's radio and television
C) The Cafe de la Paix is one of Paris' most famous.
D) The glamour of the Champs-Elysees, particularly
its upper end, may not be quite what it was,
dominated as it is by airline offices, car
showrooms, and bright, light shopping arcades.
E) Notre-Dame is now viewed as one of the key
defining examples of the style which was to become
known as lie-de-France Gothic, by the early
nineteenth century few Parisians valued their
medieval past very highly.
12) . ________ The type of abacus now best known is
represented by a frame with sliding counters. An
elementary abacus might have ten parallel wires
strung between two boards on a frame, with nine
beads on each wire. Each bead on a given wire has
the same value: either ten or some multiple or
submultiples of ten. For example, all of the beads
on a particular wire may have a value of 1, making
this the units wire, or 10, making this wire the
tens wire. Numbers are represented and added
together on the abacus by grouping beads together.
A) In certain Asian communities, abacuses are still
being used to calculate invoices.
B) Abacus is a simple device for performing
C) Calculations are performed by placing the abacus
flat on a table or one's lap and manipulating the
beads with the fingers of one hand.
D) Proper finger technique is paramount in achieving
proficiency on the abacus.
E) The use of the abacus is still taught in Asian
schools; in the West, unfortunately, it is less so.
13) . Economic planning requires control and
direction of economic activity by a central public
authority. In its modern usage, economic planning
tends to be pitted against the laissez-faire
philosophy that developed in the 18th century.
______ . The contemporary economic model of rational
expectations offers perhaps the strongest critique
of economic planning in its assertion that economic
forecasting, both by individuals and competing
businesses, is generally rational. In this model,
government control of economic policy can only lead
to complication, since any change instituted by
central authorities has already been anticipated by
A) Laissez faire philosophy and the principles of
market economy differ from each other fundamentally
as far as the expectations from government control
B) One fundamental difference between laissez faire
philosophy and economic planning is that the latter
one entails little or no intervention from the
C) Application of the principles of laissez faire
philosophy should always be strictly controlled by
D) Because laissez faire economy requires direct and
total interference from a public authority.
E) Proponents of laissez faire believed that an
economy works best when there is little government
14) . Juvenile delinquency is a legal term for
behaviour of children and adolescents that in adults
would be judged criminal under law. In the United
States, definitions and age limits of juveniles
vary, the maximum age being set at 14 years in some
states and as high as 21 years in others! ______. A
high proportion of adult criminals have a background
of early delinquency. Theft is the most common
offence by children; more serious property crimes
and rape are most frequently committed in later
A) Variations in the application of the judicial
regulations across the states in the US lead a
confusion in the interpretation of the criminal
behaviour of the young.
B) Although some behaviours of young people of
Anglo-Saxon origin are considered juvenile
delinquency, very same actions of the young of
Afro-American origin are taken as criminal
C) Many amendments on the US constitution carried
out by the senate gave it the present form.
D) The 16- to 20-year age group, considered adult in
many places, has one of the highest incidences of
E) The violence illustrated on the mass media is
another crucial factor in juvenile delinquency
15) . Crucifixion is hanging on a cross, which is
used in ancient times a method of capital
punishment. It was practiced widely in the Middle
East but not by the Greeks. The Romans, who may have
borrowed it from Carthage, reserved it for slaves
and despised malefactors. _____. Crucifixion was
probably at first a modification of hanging on a
tree or impaling on a pole.
A) They used it frequently, as in the civil wars and
in putting down the Jewish opposition.
B) Therefore, the Crucifixion of Jesus have been
depicted by numerous artists throughout the ages.
C) According to the Christian faith, Jesus
resurrected after the crucifixion, and was taken to
D) Crucifixion was banned in Europe as a capital
punishment after Christianity.
E) Crucifixion was applied by Greek warriors in the
West Trace for the very first time.
16) . Microwave ovens use microwaves to rapidly cook
food. _____. A special electron tube called a
magnetron produces the microwaves. Typical output
power for consumer devices ranges from 350 to 900
watts. To ensure even heating, the magnetron directs
its waves at a rotating metal disk with offset vans,
which scatters the waves through the oven cavity.
Additionally, a rotating platform for the food is
sometimes used. Power settings cycle
the constant-output magnetron on and off for varying
lengths of time.
A) Microwave technology has been utilized in both
communication and electronics.
B) The microwaves cause water molecules in the food
to vibrate, producing heat, which is distributed
through the food by induction.
C) These type ovens are widely used in restaurants,
especially in Chinese eateries, to cook the food
D) Although they consume more electricity than
regular ovens, they are preferred by many.
E) Some claim that microwaves might be hazardous for
health especially when the door of the oven is not
17) . ______ . It may be preceded by flashes or
spots before the eyes or a ringing in the ears, and
accompanied by double vision, nausea, omitting, or
dizziness. The attacks vary in frequency from daily
occurrences to one every few years. Migraine affects
women three times as often as men and is frequently
inherited. Many disturbances, such as allergy,
temporary swelling of the brain, and endocrine
disturbances, lave been suspected of causing some
varieties of the disorder.
A) For some women, oral contraceptives appear to be
the trigger factor for migraine.
B) As you come to recognize the early warning signs
of migraine, you may be able to prevent it.
C) Although migraine headaches cause considerable
pain and suffering, they are not dangerous.
D) Treatment for migraine may be with painkillers
such as acetaminophen, which narrow the blood
E) Migraine is a type of headache characterized by
recurrent attacks of severe pain, usually on one
side of the head.
18) . Pidgin is a form of language that is not the
mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a
simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot
vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the
Lingua Franca that developed among merchants and
traders in the Mediterranean in the Middle Ages; it
remained in use through the 19th century. ______. An
example is the variety of Pidgin English that
resulted from contacts between English traders and
the Chinese in Chinese ports.
A) Pidgin was long neglected by linguists, because
it was not regarded as real language, but its study
is currently regarded as significant for
sociolinguistics as well as the study of such
languages as English.
B) Other known pidgins have been employed in
different regions since the 17th cent.
C) Pidgin, for example Spanish pidgin, is a marginal
language which arises to fulfil certain restricted
communicative functions among groups with no common
D) Pidgins can be classified into four according to
their development: jargon, stable pidgin, extended
pidgin, and Creole.
E) Because they lack redundancy, pidgins depend
heavily on context for their interpretation.
19) . Ebola virus, named for the region in Congo
where it was first identified in 1976, emerged from
the rain forest, where it survives in an as yet
unknown host. Once a person is infected with the
virus, the disease has an incubation period of 2-21
days; however, some infected persons are
asymptomatic. Initial symptoms are sudden malaise,
headache, and muscle pain, progressing to high
fever, vomiting, severe haemorrhaging and in 50-90%
of patients, death, usually within days. The
likelihood of death is governed by the virulence of
the particular Ebola strain involved. Ebola virus is
transmitted in body fluids and secretions; there is
no evidence of transmission by casual contact.
A) Its contribution to the medical literature is not
B) There is no vaccine and no cure.
C) Medical scientists claim that the disease is a
result of common cold.
D) Medical labs ceased conducting experiments on
Ebola except the ones in Congo.
E) Ebola-diagnosed patients are only cured in
specialized hospitals in Congo.
20) ________ Adoption was recognized by Greek law
but not by common law. Statutes first introduced
adoption into U.S. law in the mid-20th century, and
today it is allowed in all states of the United
States and in Great Britain. Adoption is generally a
judicial proceeding, requiring a hearing before a
judge. Adoption statutes usually provide that the
consent of the parents or guardian of the child-and
that of the child, if above a certain age-must be
A) Lawyers usually have difficult times in adapting
themselves to the changes in the adoption law.
B) Adaptation to a new environment might be
stressful for timid people.
C) Adoption is an act by which the legal relation of
parent and child is created.
D) Adoption might cause some inevitable inner
E) Adaptation process for new immigrants is getting
longer due to the recent immigration law.
21) Anaemia is a situation in which the
concentration of haemoglobin in the circulating
blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by
a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood
cells), an abnormally low level of haemoglobin in
the individual cells, or both these conditions
simultaneously. ________ These symptoms consist of
pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, weakness,
dizziness, easy fatigability, and drowsiness. Severe
cases show difficulty in breathing, heart
abnormalities, and digestive complaints.
A) Regardless of the cause, all types of anaemia
cause similar signs and symptoms because of the
blood's reduced capacity to carry oxygen.
B) Anaemia has been the most contagious disease for
C) Doctors ceased conducting experiments on patients
for some time.
D) Anaemia-diagnosed patients should be isolated in
specially insulated wards.
E) Doctors receive a special training for the
treatment of Anaemia-diagnosed patients.
22) _________ Recent experimenters with laughing gas
were Sir Humphrey Davy of England and Horace Wells
of the United States. Ether came into general use
after a demonstration at the Massachusetts General
Hospital in Boston by William T. G. Morton in 1846.
General anaesthetics, administered by inhalation or
intravenous injection, cause unconsciousness as well
as insensibility to pain, and are used for major
surgical procedures. In the past, ether was the most
commonly used general anaesthetic.
A) Some exotic plants are believed to have
anaesthetic effects on human beings.
B) Anaesthesia is an ancient technique applied in
the mummification process.
C) Anaesthesia can always be practiced by laymen.
D) Anaesthesia is a technique utilized by sorcerers
E) Anaesthesia is loss of sensation, especially that
of pain, induced by drugs.
23) Anglican Community is the body of churches in
all parts of the earth that are in communion with
the Church of England. The communion consists of
regional churches, provinces, and separate dioceses
bound together by mutual loyalty as expressed in the
Lambeth Conference of 1930. There are 38
self-governing churches in the Anglican household,
including the Episcopal Church in the United States,
the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Church in Wales,
the Church of Ireland, and the Nippon Sei Ko . There
are separate dioceses in Jerusalem and Egypt. In the
late 20th century, the communion experienced
tremendous growth in Africa.
A) African people are believed to be deists.
B) There are nearly 77 million members worldwide
C) The number of the members of African-Anglican
Community is diminishing.
D) The decreasing interest in Anglican Community in
Africa surprised the Church of England.
E) The Church of England ceased its functions in
24) Anglo-Saxon is the name given to the
Germanic-speaking peoples who settled in England
after the decline of Roman rule there. ________ The
Angles seem to have come from what is now Schles in
the later decades of the 5th cent. Their settlements
in the eastern, central, and northern portions of
the country were the foundations for the later
kingdoms known as East Anglia, Merci, and Northum.
The Saxons, a Germanic tribe who had been
continental neighbours of the Angles, also settled
in England in the late 5th century after earlier
marauding forays there. The later kingdoms of
Sussex, Wesse, and Essex were the outgrowths of
A) The historical linguists have been studying their
language for years.
B) They are famous for their contributions to
C) Although they live in England, their native land
D) They were first invited by the Celtic King
Vortige, who needed help fighting the Pict and
E) They, as an ethnic minority, suffered a lot.
25) Black Shirts is the colloquial term originally
used to refer to the members of the Fasci
compartment, units of the Fascist organization
founded in Italy in March 1919, by Benito Mussolini.
________ The Black Shirts were mainly discontented
ex-soldiers. They posed as champions of law and
order and violently attacked Communists, socialists,
and other radical and progressive groups. They broke
up strikes, destroyed trade union headquarters, and
drove socialist and Communist officials from office.
In October, 1922, their activities culminated in the
famous march on Rome, which brought Mussolini to
power. Afterward, while the term "Black Shirts"
continued to be used to refer to party militants in
general, the name Fasci compartment designated the
local party units.
A) They are trained to protect the nation against
B) They are specially trained ex-soldiers.
C) They are among the elite force of the Italian
D) A black shirt was the most distinctive part of
E) Black shirt has been a part of their commando
uniform since the administration of Mussolini.