1) . __________ The midnight sun is due to the fact
that the plane of the earth's equator is skewed
about 231/2° to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, at
the summer solstice (about June 22), the sun is
stilt visible on the horizon at midnight at all
points along the Arctic Circle, 231/2° of latitude
from the North Pole. At points north of the Arctic
Circle, the midnight sun is visible for longer than
one day, the North Pole having a full six months of
continuous sun from the vernal equinox (about March
21) to the autumnal equinox (about September 23). In
the south Polar Regions the midnight sun is visible
along the Antarctic Circle at the winter solstice
(about December 22) and south of the Antarctic
Circle for longer periods.
A) Midnight sun cannot be observed from the regions
located in the southern hemisphere.
B) Equator line is considered as one of the most
suitable places to observe the midnight sun.
C) Midnight sun is phenomenon in which the sun
remains visible in the sky continuously for 24 hours
or longer, occurring only in the Polar, Regions.
D) Midnight sun is natural phenomenon that has never
concerned the attention of the scientific circle so
E) Life for the local people living in the Arctic
Circle is extremely challenging.
2) . Solar cell is a semiconductor devised to alter
light to electric current. It is a particularly
constructed diode, usually made of silicon crystal.
When light strikes the exposed active surface, it
knocks electrons loose from their sites in the
crystal. Some of the electrons have sufficient
energy to cross the diode junction. ________.Since
the current obtained from these devices is small and
the voltage is low, they must be connected in large
series-parallel arrays if useful amounts of energy
are to be converted.
A) As global warming accelerates and our energy
demands continue to rise, we have to adopt cleaner,
more sustainable sources of energy.
B) Having done so, they cannot return to positions
on the other side of the junction without passing
through an external circuit.
C) If we covered a small fraction of the Sahara
desert with photovoltaic, we could generate all the
world's electricity requirements.
D) The sun bathes the earth in an incredible amount
of energy - in a day, enough arrives to power the
whole world for several years.
E) The 21st Century must be the solar century.
3) . Seasonal migrations happen in many species of
insects, birds, marine mammals, and large
herbivorous mammals. ________ Many birds and a few
bats of cold and temperate regions migrate to warmer
areas during the winter. Herbivores of cold regions,
such as wapiti, caribou, and moose, have summer and
winter ranges; many herbivores of warm regions, such
as the African antelopes, migrate seasonally to
avoid drought. These migrations may involve a change
of latitude, of altitude, or both.
A) Migrations of these animals are closely monitored
by the ornithologists.
B) These migrations often provide the animals with
more favourable conditions of temperature, food, or
C) During the seasonal migrations, birds'
nutritional attitudes vary according to the
geographical area they fly over.
D) In the past, people founded observatories,
especially in ancient Aztec civilization, tried to
track the route of the migrations.
E) The findings obtained from studies regarding
seasonal migrations led the innovation of
4) . ________ The probability that stellar
navigation is used has been strengthened by
experiments in planetariums indicating that birds
navigate at least in part by the stars.
Night-migrating birds are sometimes perplexed in
prolonged heavy fog. Day-flying birds navigate by
the sun and also make some use of geographic
features, particularly of shorelines. It has long
been proposed that birds perceive the direction of
the earth's magnetic field and use it for
navigation, but experimental evidence for that
hypothesis is inconclusive.
A) Stellar navigation had been a technique utilized
by the sailors before the invention of compass.
B) Migratory birds are believed to use the stars,
sun, and geographic features as guides.
C) Ancient sailors used to make use of the stellar
navigation techniques prior to the innovation of
modem navigational devices.
D) Experiments carried out in planetariums revealed
that the accuracy in course-plotting could only be
achieved by stellar navigation techniques.
E) Night-migrating birds have always been a subject
5) . Millennium bug is a plan flaw in the hardware
or software of a computer that causes erroneous
results when working with dates beyond Dec. 31,
1999. In the 1960s and 70s programmers who designed
computer systems dropped the first two digits of a
year when storing or processing dates to save what
then was expensive and limited memory; such a system
records the year 2000 as 00 and cannot distinguish
it from 1900. In sorting, comparison, and arithmetic
operations, the year 2000 would be treated as if it
were equivalent to 0 rather than 100, causing
incorrect results. The algorithm used to calculate
leap years may also be invalid, creating an
additional problem in calculating the correct date
after Feb. 28, 2000.________
A) The network systems of large companies have
sophisticated intranets that enable protection
against malicious attacks by hackers.
B) Computer manufacturer giants like IBM, Compaq,
and Apple designed protective shields against such
viruses to protect the network systems.
C) Such viruses are the real troublemakers for
international companies using complicated networks.
D) Because their designers expected such computer
systems to be replaced before the beginning of the
year 2000, using a two-digit date was not regarded
as a problem.
E) In 2001, thousands of personal computers was
infected by the virus called Red Code virus.
6) . Empiricism is a philosophical doctrine that all
knowledge is derived from experience. For most
empiricists, experience includes inner
experience-reflection upon the mind and its
operations-as well as sense perception. This
position is opposed to rationalism in that it denies
the existence of innate ideas. ______ Therefore,
knowledge of the physical world can be nothing more
than a generalization from particular instances and
can never reach more than a high degree of
A) According to the empiricist, all ideas are
derived from experience.
B) Modem empiricism has been conditioned in large
part by two dogmas.
C) The Aristotelian notion of empiricism was the
forerunner, no doubt, of the modem notion of
intension or meaning.
D) This is an account of cognitive synonymy not of
linguistic forms generally, but of statements.
E) Empiricists there are who would boggle at such
prodigality inquiry in astronomy.
7) . Perspiration is the fluid secreted by the sweat
glands of mammalian skin and containing water,
salts, and waste products of body metabolism such as
urea. The dissolved solid content of sweat is only
one eighth that of an equal volume of urine, the
body's main vehicle of salt excretion. However,
excessive sweating may produce severe salt loss.
Human sweat glands are of two types, eccrine and
apocrine. The eccrine glands, found everywhere on
the body surface, are vital to the regulation of
body temperature. Evaporation of the sweat secreted
by the eccrines cools the body, dissipating the heat
generated by metabolic processes.
A) On the other hand, dogs perspire from their
B) Anti-perspire products might be dangerous for
woman expecting baby.
C) The release of such sweat is usually
imperceptible; yet even in cool weather an
individual will lose from 1 pt to 3 qt of fluid per
D) Therefore, stopping perspiration is considered as
a sign of disease.
E) An average person must consume 2 litres of water.
8) . Petra is an antique rock city in present-day
Jordan. ________.It was for many centuries the focal
point of a vast caravan trade but declined with the
rise of Palmyra. However, it remained a religious
centre of Arabia. Under the Romans in the 2d and 3d
century, it was included in the province of Arabia
Petraea. An early seat of Christianity, it was
occupied by the Muslims in the 7th century and in
the 12th century was captured by the Crusaders, who
built a citadel there. Petra was unidentified to the
Western world until its ruins were visited by Johann
Burckhardt in 1812.
A) It was early occupied by the Edomites and by the
Nabataeans, who had their capital there from the 4th
century B.C. until the Roman occupation in A.D. 106.
B) Petra is a major tourist Mecca in present day
C) It takes seven hours car ride from Irbid to
Petra, which is situated among the mountains.
D) After his visit to Petra, Johann Burckhardt
converted to Islamic faith.
E) Petra is a sacred location for many religions.
9) . Petroleum has been known during historical
time. Native Americans used it in magic and
medication and in making paints. Pioneers bought it
from the Native Americans for medicinal use and
called it Seneca oil and Genesee oil. In Europe it
was scooped from streams or holes in the ground, and
in the early 19th century small quantities were made
from shale. In 1815 several streets in Prague were
lighted with petroleum lamps.
A) Petroleum engineers are responsible for exploring
and drilling for oil and gas.
B) Scientists in the area of organic chemistry have
been striving for producing syntactic oil for years.
C) The major economic source of many of Mid-East
countries is petroleum.
D) It was used in mortar, for coating walls and boat
hulls, and as a fire weapon in defensive warfare.
E) British Petroleum is the leading oil company in
10) . Potential power is the capability for doing
work that a body possesses because of its position
or condition. For example, a stone resting on the
edge of a cliff has potential energy due to its
position in the earth's gravitational field.
________ The stone's potential energy is equal to
its weight times the distance it can fall. A charge
in an electric field also has potential energy
because of its position; a stretched spring has
potential energy because of its condition.
A) Everything you observe moving about has kinetic
B) This apparatus will drop a mass from different
C) Other examples of systems having potential energy
include a stretched rubber band, and a pair of
magnets held together so that the like poles are
D) Nuclei in atoms have potential energy that is
transformed into more useful forms of energy in
nuclear power plants
E) If it falls, the force of gravity will act on it
until it strikes the ground.
11) . _________ Reimbursement is made from a fund to
which many individuals exposed to the same risk have
contributed certain specified amounts, called
premiums. Payment for an individual loss divided
among many, does not fall heavily upon the actual
loser The essence of the contract of insurance,
called a policy, is mutuality. The major operations
of an insurance company are underwriting, the
determination of which risks the insurer can take
on; and rate making, the decisions regarding
necessary prices for such risks. The underwriter is
responsible for guarding against adverse selection,
wherein there is excessive coverage of high-risk
candidates in proportion to the coverage of low risk
A) No-fault insurance is a type of automobile
liability insurance that tries to cut the cost of
insurance that tries to cut the cost of insurance by
restricting the legal grounds on which suits arising
out of accidents can be brought.
B) Life insurance programs have been widely offered
by the insurance companies for many years.
C) Insurance is a device for indemnifying or
guaranteeing an individual against loss.
D) Insurance against the damages caused earthquakes
has been compulsory for two years in Turkey.
E) Insurance against natural disasters are usually
offered by large international companies.
12) . Zoology is a division of biology concerned
with the study of animal life. _________Cave art
demonstrates the practical and mystical significance
animals held for prehistoric man. Early efforts to
classify animals were based on physical resemblance,
habitat, or economic use. Although Hippocrates and
Aristotle did much toward organizing the scientific
thought of their times, systematic investigation
declined under the Romans and, after Galen's notable
contributions, came to a virtual halt lasting
through the Middle Ages. With the Renaissance direct
observation of nature revived; landmarks were
Vesalius' anatomy and Harvey's demonstration of the
circulation of blood. The invention of the
microscope and the use of experimental techniques
expanded zoology as a field and established many of
its branches, e.g., cytology and histology.
A) From earliest times animals have been vitally
important to man.
B) A job in the field of zoology will require at
least a Bachelor of Science in biology or a related
field like wildlife biology or zoology.
C) The best part about being a zoologist is that
you're doing something that you really love to do.
D) The pay for a zoologist generally increases with
each additional degree.
E) There's many different jobs that a zoologist can
do, from being a lab technician, to a veterinarian,
to being an animal caretaker/trainer/breeder, to
being a wildlife biologist.
13) . Judo has been an Olympic sport for men since
1964 and for women since 1984. Both fight in eight
weight classes. Proficiency in judo is indicated by
the colour of a player's belt; white indicates a
beginner, black a master. There is a wide range of
colour in between. In 1953 the Amateur Athletic
Union recognized judo as a sport and sanctioned
annual championships. ________
A) Jujitsu, the unmodified form of judo, has been
taught to military and police forces.
B) Numerous schools throughout the world now teach
C) Self-defence techniques were believed to
originate in the Far East.
D) Jujitsu is not only a self-defence but also a way
of self-discipline technique.
E) Karate world championship was first held in Tokyo
14) . The Marxist philosophical way is dialectical
materialism, a reversal of the dialectical idealism
of Hegel. _________.Through dialectical materialism
was developed the fundamental Marxist premise that
the history of society is the inexorable "history of
class struggle." According to this premise, a
specific class could rule only so long as it best
represented the economically productive forces of
society; when it became outmoded it would be
destroyed and replaced. From this continuing dynamic
process a classless society would eventually emerge.
A) "The history of the world, according to Hegel, is
none other than the progress of the consciousness of
B) Hegel lived and worked in what we now know as
C) Of all the major Western philosophers, Hegel has
gained the reputation of being the most
D) Dialectical materialism presumes the primacy of
economic determinants in history.
E) In Hegel's belief, we are free only when we act
in accordance with our reason.
15) . Nosebleed happens as the result of local
injury or trouble. Most nosebleeds are not serious
and occur when one of the small veins of the septum
ruptures. ________. A nosebleed may also occur in
association with infections, heart failure,
hypertension, arteriosclerosis, scurvy, leukemia,
hemophilia, and other disorders. Persistent
nosebleeds should be brought to the attention of a
physician, who can stop the bleeding with
vasoconstrictors and topical anesthetics.
A) These will usually stop without treatment or when
pressure is applied to the nose.
B) If your nose is gradually becoming blocked, you
may have nasal polyps.
C) Anosmia is the medical term for loss of the sense
of smell and taste that persists when there is no
obvious cause, such as a head cold.
D) If the bleeding has not stopped about twenty
minutes after this application, go to your
E) People with this condition may require deeper
packing with gauze, hospitalization, and
16) . Official efforts at arms control have made
some improvement, but only very gradually. The first
resolution (1946) of the General Assembly of the
United Nations set up an Atomic Energy Commission to
make proposals for the peaceful uses of atomic power
and for the removal of weapons of mass demolition.
________. However, the plan was vetoed by the USSR
in the Security Council. As the cold war progressed,
the commission reached an impasse (1948). With the
proliferation of nuclear weapons, concern over the
situation became more acute.
A) Atomic bombs annihilated two Japanese cities,
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, during the World War II
B) It is still hard to believe that a single atomic
weapon might claim thousands of lives within
C) The atomic bombs used during the World War Ü were
the most destructive weapons ever been used.
D) The commission concentrated debate on the Baruch
Plan for an international agency to control atomic
power and weapons and passed it.
E) The United Nations Security Council had to ban
the production of nuclear weapons.
17) . ________ It is also concerned with analysis of
diplomatic reports, newspapers, periodicals,
technical publications, commercial statistics, and
radio and television broadcasts. In the last fifty
years spying activity has been greatly supplemented
by technological advances, especially in the areas
of radio signal interception and high-altitude
photography. Observation with high-technology
equipment on the ground or from high-altitude planes
and satellites has become an important espionage
method. Code making and code breaking have become
computerized and very effective. The threat of
foreign espionage is used as an excuse for internal
suppression and the suspension of civil rights in
A) From Biblical times to the middle of the
twentieth century the lone agent has been the most
potent intelligence weapon.
B) Espionage is a part of intelligence activity.
C) The most effective of these were spies who acted,
for the most part, without the support of a network
and were thus able to avoid being betrayed by
D) Spies are not to be confused with the common or
E) The lust for wealth motivates most spies, from
ancient times to the present.
18) . ________ In feudal culture, for example, the
capability to read and write was of significance
only to the clergy and aristocracy. The first known
reference to "literate laymen" did not appear until
the end of the 14th cent. Illiteracy was not seen as
a problem until after the invention of printing in
the 15th cent. The first noteworthy decline in
illiteracy came with the Reformation, when
translation of the Bible into the vernacular became
widespread and Protestant converts were taught to
A) Feudalism is a system of obligations that bound
lords and their subjects in Europe during much of
the Middle Ages.
B) Throughout most of history most people have been
C) Under feudalism, people were born with a
permanent position in society.
D) Traditional religious belief was at first
threatened with the increase of literacy.
E) Feudalism was a great handicap in front of the
19) . Proponents of organic food state that it is
more nourishing, safer to eat, and usually tastes
better because it contains no synthetically
compounded fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides,
hormones, medicated feed, or antibiotics or
chemicals used in food processing. Organic foods
have become steadily more popular as the public has
become more concerned about health risks associated
with chemicals in food products. Organic produce is
now available in many food outlets, together with
major supermarket chains. ________
A) Organic food is generally more expensive because
organic farming requires more manual labour and
B) You need to include at least twenty minerals in
C) Anyone who eats a varied diet of fresh fruits and
vegetables, grains, dairy products, fish, and meat
generally gets enough vitamins.
D) Fats are found in plant foods such as olives and
peanuts as well as in animal products.
E) Proteins are the chemical compounds that form the
basis of living matter.
20) . _________ The stimulus is carried by nerve
fibres to the spinal cord and then to the brain,
where the nerve impulse is interpreted as ache. The
excessive stimulation of nerve endings during pain
is attributed to tissue damage, and in this sense
pain has a protecting value, serving as a danger
signal of disease and often facilitating diagnosis.
Unlike other sensory experiences, e.g., response to
touch or cold, pain may be modified by sedatives and
non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or, if
unusually severe, by opioid narcotics.
A) Non specific backache is difficult to diagnose.
B) Whatever type of back pain you have, you should
contact your physician if it persists for more than
three to four days.
C) Pain is unpleasant or hurtful sensation resulting
from stimulation of nerve endings.
D) Painful periods, especially menstrual cramps, are
also called dysmenorrheal which is a result of
normal hormonal changes during menstruation.
E) If the pain is not severe, you may only need to
take a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as
21) . ________ It classically has a miniaturized
full-function, typewriter-like keyboard for input
and a small, full colour, liquid-crystal display for
output. In addition to an operating system that is
compatible with that of a desktop computer, a
palmtop will typically contain a word processor, a
spreadsheet program, and a calendar and phone book.
A variety of other programs can be loaded and
executed, and data can usually be transferred to and
from a desktop computer.
A) This kind of palmtops are like personal digital
assistants in that they accept handwritten or touch
B) Palmtops have more memory, a keyboard, and a
greater variety of available programs.
C) A laptop is a very practical instrument for
D) Price of an average laptop varies between $1850
E) A Palmtop is a lightweight, small,
battery-powered, general-purpose programmable
22) . The abominable snowman, or Yeti, is a
humanlike creature so named because it is associated
with the continuous snow region of the Himalayas. A
figure unknown apart from through tracks ascribed to
it and through alleged encounters, it is described
as being 1.8 to 2.4 m tall and covered with long,
dark hair. Attempts after the 1950s to verify the
authenticity of its tracks have yielded no
conclusive results. ________ A somewhat similarly
described creature of North America is known as
Bigfoot or Sasquatch.
A) For this reason, most scholars dismiss the
existence of the creature.
B) Although Yeti's anatomical structure was examined
thoroughly, no evidence regarding its similarity to
apes was revealed.
C) Adventurous people have witnessed the existence
of the Yeti, the abominable snowman with a thick,
hairy body the size of a large gorilla.
D) The Yeti is said to make random appearances
around the Khumbu region (at foothills of the
E) About a dozen people have claimed to have seen
the Yeti. Among those include the father of Tenzing
Norge Sherpa, the first person to climb Everest.
23) . Yoga is a general term for spiritual
disciplines in Hinduism, Buddhism, and throughout
Southern Asia that are directed toward attaining
higher consciousness and liberation from ignorance,
suffering, and rebirth. ________ Both Vedic and
Buddhist literature talk about the doctrines of
wandering ascetics in ancient India who practiced
various kinds of austerities and meditation. The
basic text of the Yoga philosophical school is a
systematization of one of these older traditions.
Contemporary systems of yoga stress that spiritual
realization can be attained without the withdrawal
from the world characteristic of the older
A) More specifically it is also the name of one of
the six orthodox systems of Hindu philosophy.
B) Experienced yoga teachers can help with the
correct postures and breathing techniques.
C) Taught by a certified yoga instructor, not by a
health club instructor teaching glorified stretching
exercises that they decide to call "yoga" or
teaching "relaxation exercises."
D) Yoga is enjoying growing popularity in Western
E) Yoga has been shown to significantly decrease
hyperglycaemia in non-insulin dependent diabetics.
24) . _________ For example, certain Hindu and
Buddhist sects are vegetarian, as are Seventh-Day
Adventists. As a general movement vegetarianism
arose about the middle of the 19th century; it made
considerable progress in Great Britain and in the
United States. In the contemporary United States,
vegetarianism has gained acceptance as a practice
that lowers one's risk for the "diseases of
affluence," e.g.. high blood pressure, heart
disease, diabetes, and certain cancers.
A) Vegetarianism can be seen as a kind of
self-expression, a decision to overcome our
biological heritage as omnivores for a herbivorous
diet more in accordance to our ethics or aesthetic.
B) Being adaptive we can become vegetarian if we
choose today, but it is an individual choice made
based on our own values and not on any biological
C) The word vegetarian, coined by the founders of
the British Vegetarian Society in 1842, comes from
the Latin word vegetus, meaning "whole, sound,
fresh, or lively," as in homo vegetus-a mentally and
physically vigorous person.
D) Most vegetarians are people who have understood
that to contribute towards a more peaceful society
we must first solve the problem of violence in our
E) The basis of the practice of vegetarianism may be
religious or ethical, economic, or nutritional, and
its followers differ as to strictness of observance.
25) .One of the most primeval and widespread sports,
wrestling was most likely known in prehistoric
times. ________ The Greeks practiced two forms of
wrestling-upright and ground. Wrestling was also
included in the pentathlon and the pankration; the
most well-known Greek wrestler was Milo of Croton.
Homer's account of the match between Ajax and
Ulysses is one of the world's greatest wrestling
stories. Wrestling tournaments were held in medieval
Europe, and the sport has remained popular
A) In ancient Greece, wrestlers were rated second
only to discus throwers as popular Olympic heroes.
B) The colonists also found wrestling quite popular
among the Native Americans.
C) The first organized national wrestling tournament
was held in New York City in 1888, while the first
wrestling competition in the modem Olympic Games was
held in 1904 in Saint Louis, Missouri.
D) Wrestling became the national governing body of
amateur wrestling in 1983, and conducts competitions
for all age levels.
E) Amateur wrestling flourished throughout the early
years of the nation, and served as a popular
activity at country fairs, holiday celebrations, and
in military exercises.