1) Ling Yu is a Chinese immigrant from Hong Kong.
Back in Hong Kong he was a farmer peasant, who works
15 hours a day to earn some food for his family. But
15 hours of work was not enough, the crops that he
grew was only enough to pay the debt for the land
lords, he did not have any left for his family.
......... Life was especially hard for him because
he was the only adult man in the family; he has
neither land nor money.
A) Wong was exhausted and was fast asleep right
after he finished every other mine worker's laundry.
B) Sometimes his family would starve for days with
nothing but water.
C) He immediately signed up for the trip to America.
D) He heard that in America there are gold mines
that were hiring Chinese workers to work.
E) But he did not have any money for the trip so he
was forced to sell his new born child.
2) .......... Reactions between the sun's energy,
the oceans, and the air produce
wind that has been used for centuries to turn
windmills. Modern applications of wind energy, when
attached to generators, produce electricity. Through
photosynthesis, solar energy contributes to the
growth of plant life masses that can be used as
fuel, such as alcohol or methane.
A) The intensity of energy actually available at the
earth's surface is very little.
B) The energy generated from sunlight would be
converted to microwaves
C) This vision requires an exorbitant amount of
D) Mankind has been using the natural energy of the
sun for ages.
E) To my knowledge, there isn't a government on
earth that is willing, thus far, to fund such a
3) ......... A baby is always in someone's hands and
does not have much freedom at all.
Being dependent is not very pleasant. Every child
waits for adolescence where they do not
have to get support from their families any more.
Indeed, the relationship between parents and
children during childhood depends a lot on the
A) A brother or a sister gives to the child more
B) It has been noted that people consider their
childhood as a nostalgic period.
C) Childhood can be a period of frustration.
D) Children keep on receiving information but they
do not give any information.
E) The childhood is said to be a period of real
4) We started our trip in Paris. We arrived there in
the early afternoon and after checking
into our hotel we went to Notre Dame de Paris. There
was a special exhibition about the
restoration of the church, which was going on then.
We were able to see various exhibits about what
restorers do, and even go up on scaffolding to the
roof to see some of the restorers
working on the stonework near the roof of the
A) We also got a good view of the city from there.
B) According to the guide, there is once a
connecting door to the monastery.
C) The house is an eight-sided room with stained
glass, murals, and tile floors.
D) The monks complained that all the stomping was
damaging their beautiful floor tiles.
E) It was a room where samples of coins were sent to
make sure that they had sufficient weight of
5) Man-made nuclear reactions are used to produce a
form an electricity. Electricity can be transformed
into other kinds of energy such as heat, light and
radio waves. People have also used the idea of
nuclear reactions as a type of weapon. We call this
powerful weapon the nuclear weapon. .......... This
involves energy being concentrated to a specific
narrow point where the impact of so much power
creates heat able to cut through metals.
A) When we do use our muscles within us, we may not
always be sure that heat is given off.
B) Electrical energy can also be used to produce
C) The individual relies on food for fuel which
contains energy-giving substances.
D) We recognize this process as burning.
E) However, this transformation could not take place
without the fuel.
6) . What makes a 'good' language learner 'better',
and what makes a 'poor' language learner 'poorer'?
What does this imply for the teaching of language in
the Turkey context? ______. We, as language
teachers, should design a research study aiming at
seeking the differences between language learners to
learner variables and learner strategies.
A) These are the central questions of the English
B) These research designs pointed out that language
learning strategies can be identified
C) Learner variables and strategies have been the
focus of a number of research projects.
D) It is important to note here that what we are
considering is not the fact that language learners
do and can learn.
E) Since I am a teacher of English working in
Turkey, gleaning a little of what learner variables
and strategies seem .to work for local students
seems to be a fruitful area of research.
7) . ________ She was worshiped under many names and
attributes. Similar figures have been known in every
part of the world. Essentially she was represented
as the creative force in all nature, the mother of
all things, responsible particularly for the
periodic renewal of life. The later forms of her
cult involved the worship of a male deity, variously
considered her son, lover, or both, whose death and
resurrection symbolized the regenerative powers of
A) According to the Christian faith. God created the
Earth in seven days.
B) The Earth is the mother of all living, and her
ecologic equilibrium should be saved.
C) In ancient Middle Eastern religions. Mother
Goddess is the great symbol of the earth's
D) Necessity is the mother of all inventions.
E) Only planet which has life in the solar system is
8) . ________ Representatives of 176 nations agreed
to work toward the sustainable development of the
planet, although most of the agreements were not
legally binding. Sustainable development is the
growth of population, industry, and agriculture in a
way that will allow the present generation to meet
its own needs without damaging those of future
generations. Two binding declarations-to minimize
global climate change and to stem the depletion of
the world's inventory of biological diversity were
signed by more than 150 countries at the conference,
with others expected to sign later .
A) Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
to discuss the global conflict between economic
development and environmental protection in June
B) One of NASA's main responsibilities is keep
communication channel open among the planets in the
C) Green Peace is the most developed environmental
nongovernmental organization which has many members
all over the world.
D) The growth of population and the distribution of
biological diversity are regularly studied by the
experts of environmental organizations.
E) A mutual agreement has been attained between the
United States and the European Union member states
on controlling the growth of population, industry,
and agriculture in order to save the environment and
preventing the greenhouse effect occurring as a
result of the hole in the ozone layer.
9) . _________ The owner of the permit may use it to
pollute legally, may trade permits, or may sell the
permit for a profit. The allowance issued to a
polluter is reduced over time as permitted levels of
a pollutant are cut. By specifying reductions in
emissions but leaving the polluter to decide how to
cut them, the program is intended to provide
free-market incentives to lessen both pollution and
compliance costs. A company that cuts its pollution
below its permitted level may sell the surplus
allowance; a company that exceeds its limits without
purchasing an extra allowance is fined.
A) Acid rain destroys plants and animals in several
B) Sometimes the effects of acid rain are far
removed from the source of pollutants; for example,
the acid rain over southern Scandinavia has its
origins in continental Europe and Great Britain.
C) Sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency
and run by the Chicago Board of Trade, the first
U.S. air pollution auction was held in 1993.
D) Under the Clean Air Act of 1990, federal
allowances for sulphur dioxide emissions are issued
to polluters, and additional allowances are
E) Pollution allowance is a government-issued permit
to emit a certain amount of a pollutant.
10) . Cretinism is situation produced in infants and
children due to lack of thyroid hormone. ________
However, it can develop later if there is a lack of
iodine in the diet, or if the thyroid is diseased or
surgically removed. Cretinism causes very serious
retardation of physical and mental development. If
the condition is left untreated, growth is stunted
and the physical stature attained is that of a
dwarf. Moreover, the skin is thick, flabby, and waxy
in colour, the nose is flattened, the abdomen
protrudes, and there is a general slowness of
movement and speech.
A) Patients with thyroid hormone disorders should
observe a diet as well.
B) Disorders related with thyroid hormone are
treated at the nuclear medicine departments of the
C) It usually results from a congenital defect.
D) Turnip juice should be avoided by such patients.
E) Iodine deficiency has been known to lead
malfunction of the thyroid hormone.
11) . By 2080 about 40 to 50 per cent of the country
will experience changes in the type of vegetation it
supports, with tropical and subtropical forest
conditions shifting northward and hot desert
conditions rising in the west where currently the
desert is temperate. Crop-growing areas will expand
but any benefit is expected to be negated by
increased evaporation of moisture, making it too dry
to grow crops such as rice. The growing season also
is expected to alter, becoming shorter in southern
and central China, the mainland's breadbasket._____
A) Global warming is caused by the burning of large
amounts of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, which
release gases that trap heat in the atmosphere.
B) The climate change report, which will be released
C) The rapid changes make it unlikely that plants
D) Food supplies, for instance, could be affected by
lower crop yields.
E) The circulation air is rather high.
51) . Strabismus is the inability of the eyes to
focus together because of the lack of balance in the
muscles that control eye movement; also called
squint. ________ One or both eyes may be affected.
Horizontal strabismus is caused when the eyes do not
move together laterally; this condition is known as
cross-eye if the eye turns inward or walleye if the
eye turns outward. Vertical strabismus results when
the eye rolls upward or downward in its socket.
A) Patients suffering form strabismus are unable to
coordinate their eyeballs.
B) Children are likely to suffer from strabismus
more than adults.
C) Muscles weakness has been first diagnosed by a
British medical doctor in 17th century.
D) Calcium deficiency in infants results in the
weakness of the bones and the weakness of muscles
E) It is a consequence of weakness or uneven
development of one or more of the six small muscles
that surround the eye.
12) . ______. The computer had inconspicuous
beginnings in areas where it was used as a
specialist tool. The first electronic computer was
built in the 1930s and was solely for the use of
undergraduate students in Iowa State University to
handle mathematical computations in nuclear physics.
During world war two computers were developed in
order to wage counter espionage and break codes used
by the enemy. In the post war years the scope of
computers was expanded to include the military
industrial complex and academia.
A) In the 1960'S an early version of the Internet,
Arppranet was used in computer science and
B) The history of the computer in the twentieth
century is one of dramatic adaptation and expansion.
C) The first is the use of the computer as a
teaching aid for teachers.
D) How prevalent is the use of computers in schools?
E) Computers can be used as a teaching aids both in
schools and in homes.
13) . Crossword puzzle is a word game in which words
equivalent to numbered clues are put into a grid of
horizontal and vertical squares to form intersecting
words. ________ Though a type of crossword puzzle
has been established inscribed on an ancient tomb in
Egypt, journalist Arthur Wynne is generally credited
with its invention in 1913. Crossword puzzles became
popular with Simon and Schuster's 1924 publication
of a crossword puzzle book and now appear in
virtually all journalists.
A) Scrabble is another word game usually played by
B) The puzzle is solved when a player supplies all
of the words properly.
C) First crossword puzzle is thought to have been
invented by Chinese during the Ming reign.
D) Crossword puzzle is an adult game.
E) There are magazines publishing crossword puzzles
offering prizes for the ones completing them
14) . Civil time may be officially defined as mean
solar time plus 12 hours. The civil day begins at
midnight, while the mean solar day begins at noon.
Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one-second
increments to ensure that the difference between a
uniform timescale defined by atomic clocks does not
differ from the earth's rotational time by more than
0.9 seconds. _________ Civil time is usually not
used, since it depends on the observer's longitude;
instead, standard time, which is the same throughout
a given time zone, is generally adopted.
A) Time management is taught as an academic subject
at the departments of directorial sciences.
B) Measuring time has always been a great point of
curiosity for the mankind since the ancient times.
C) Nicholas Hayek, founder of the Swatch company,
started a new time measurement called Internet Time
in order to avoid time differences with the
assistance of Internet.
D) Time differences around the globe would cause a
chaos if the Greenwich Mean Time were not agreed
E) Coordinated universal time, an atomic time, is
the basis for civil time.
15) . ________ As a result of the intensified
interest in Greek and Roman civilization, especially
the works of Plato and Cicero, classical standards
were reinstated as the ideal norm in literature. In
Florence, the early center of Renaissance learning,
Cosimo de' Medici gathered a circle of who
collected, studied, expounded, and imitated the
classics. Outside Italy writers affected by the
restoration of classical conventions included
Francis Bacon and Ben Johnson in England and Pierre
Corneille and Jean Racine in France.
A) Classicism has always maintained its popularity
since ancient times.
B) In the heydays of classicism, most of the canons
of literature, architecture, and painting were
created in Greece and Italy.
C) Italy has been considered as the cradle of
D) The first major revival of classicism occurred
during the Renaissance.
E) Bacon and Johnson was the leading figures in the
revitalization of Classicism.
16) . Humanism is philosophical and literary
movement in which man and his capabilities are the
central apprehension. The term was originally
classified to a point of view prevalent among
thinkers in the Renaissance. The distinctive
characteristics of Renaissance humanism were its
emphasis on classical studies, or the humanities,
and a conscious return to classical ideals and
A) The momentum gained during Renaissance led
radical reforms in education and literacy not only
in Europe but also other parts of the world,
especially in the Mid-East.
B) The movement led to a restudy of the Scriptures
and gave impetus to the Reformation.
C) Philosophy studies the nature of the underlying
principles of the human thought.
D) Literary movements triggered during the
Renaissance still have a leading role on the
contemporary American poetry.
E) Universal declaration of human rights was
inspired by the works of this period.
17) . Clepsydra, or Water clock is an antique piece
of equipment for measuring time by means of the flow
of water from a container. A simple form of
clepsydra was an earthenware vessel with a small
opening through which the water dripped; as the
water level dropped, it exposed marks on the walls
of the vessel that indicated the time that had
elapsed since the vessel was full. ___________ Some
were double vessels, the larger one below containing
a float that rose with the water and marked the
hours on a scale. A form more closely foreshadowing
the clock had a cord fastened to the float so that
it turned a wheel, whose movement indicated the
time. A further step was the use of gear wheels and
a turning pointer.
A) More elaborate clepsydras were later developed.
B) It is believed that clepsydras were used in Egypt
circa 2000 B.C.
C) Clepsydra was never used in some parts of the
world because it was thought to be a sin.
D) Invented in Egypt, they were introduced into
Greece and later from there into Rome.
E) Clepsydra was a primitive device invented as a
result of the necessity to measure the time.
18) . Contact lens is a thin plastic lens worn
between the eye and eyelid that may be used instead
of eyeglasses. _________ Contact lenses may also be
used to correct certain abnormalities of the eye
that cannot be corrected by regular glasses. A. E.
Fick, a Swiss physician, made the first contact lens
in 1887. His heavy glass lenses exerted an
uncomfortable pressure on the eyeball, covered the
entire eye surface, and were difficult to fit. In
1938, the first plastic contact lens was made by
Theodore E. Obrig, using a newly discovered
methylmethacrylate plastic, known as Plexiglas or
Lucite, which could be molded into the proper shape.
A) Contact lenses can safely be worn by the young
B) It has been produced in different colours for
C) When it was first produced in Switzerland,
oculists were sceptical about its hygiene.
D) Eyeglasses have still been in use despite the
appropriateness of contact lenses.
E) Actors, models, and others wear them for
appearance, and athletes use them for safety and
19) . Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro, the great masters
of impressionism, painted cafe and city life, as
well as landscapes, working most often directly from
nature and using new modes of representation. While
art. had always been to a certain extent abstract in
that formal considerations had frequently been of
primary importance, painters, beginning with the
impressionists in the 1870s, took new delight in
freedom of brushwork. They made random spots of
color and encrusted the canvas with strokes that did
not always correspond to the object that they were
depicting but that formed coherent internal
A) But still Monet is the most renowned one among
B) Thus began a definite separation of the image and
C) Renoir painted snapshots from boulevard cafes
around Champs de Elise.
D) Being fond of Parisian lifestyle, Pissarro
painted the city life of Paris
E) Unlike his predecessors, Picasso followed the
20) . Copernican System is first modern European
theory of planetary motion that was heliocentric,
i.e., that placed the sun motionless at the centre
of the solar system with all the planets, including
the earth, revolving around it. ________. He
retained the ancient belief that the planets move in
perfect circles and therefore, like Ptolemy, he was
forced to utilize epicycles to clarify deviations
from uniform motion. Thus, the Copernican system was
technically only a slight improvement over the
Ptolemaic system. However, making the solar system
heliocentric removed the largest epicycle and
explained retrograde motion in a natural way.
A) Ancient civilizations are believed to have solved
the mystery of solar system.
B) Mayas had tried to understand the solar system
long before the astrologists of the middle age.
C) Nostradamus effectively predicted many events
took place in the 20th century hundreds of years ago
by observing the movements of stars and planets in
D) Copernicus developed his theory in the early 16th
century from a study of ancient astronomical
E) Ancient Aztecs discovered that the location of
the planets in the solar system has some effects on
the gravity of the Earth.
21) . Bronze Age is a period in the development of
technology when metals were first used regularly in
the manufacture of tools and weapons. Pure copper
and bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, were used
indiscriminately at first. ______ The original use
of cast metal can be deduced from clay models of
weapons; casting was certainly established in the
Middle East by 3500 B.C. Following the Neolithic
period, the development of a metallurgical industry
coincided with the rise of urbanization. The
organized operations of mining, smelting, and
casting undoubtedly required the specialization of
labour and the production of surplus food to support
a class of artisans, while the search for raw
materials stimulated the exploration and
colonization of new territories.
A) The contributions of this age to the technology
as we know today are tremendous.
B) If the humankind had not gone through the Copper
Age, the ancient battles would not have been so
C) Territories including raw materials to produce
bronze attracted people to colonize these lands.
D) Tools and weapons were used to be produced using
rocks and trees.
E) That's why this early period is also sometimes
called the Copper Age.
22) . Coral is small, inactive nautical animal,
related to the sea anemone but characterized by a
skeleton of horny or calcareous material. ._____
Although most corals form colonies by budding, there
are some solitary corals; in both types the
individual animals, called polyps, resemble the sea
anemone in form. Corals grow in both warm and
temperate climates, but they are most abundant in
warm, shallow water; over 200 coral species are
found in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. In
many shallow-water species the polyps contain
unicellular plants, which may provide the high
oxygen concentration required by such corals.
A) The skeleton of a human being is more complicated
when compared to a coral.
B) The skeleton itself is also called coral.
C) The skeletons found in the excavations near
Tarsus have been kept in the city museum.
D) Solitary corals are different from colony corals
with respect to both size and color.
E) The sea anemone are mostly found in Australia.
23) . Magic is a practice of manipulating and
controlling the path of nature by preternatural
means. Magic is based upon the belief that the
universe is populated by unseen forces or spirits
that permeate all things. Since human beings seek to
control nature and since these supernatural forces
are thought to govern the course of natural events,
the control of these forces gives humans control
over nature. ________ The magic charm, or
incantation, is the core of the magical ceremony; it
unlocks the full power of the ritual. The practice
of magic, in seeking its desired end, also
frequently combines within its scope elements of
religion and science.
A) Using non-standard forms of magic can add zest
and flavour to a campaign
B) magic charm casting is becoming more and more
accepted by mainstream society.
C) Two hundred years ago in the city of New Orleans,
the ancient art of Voodoo was transformed and
enhanced by a very powerful practitioner.
D) The practice of magic is held to depend on the
proper use of both the ritual and the spell.
E) Dragon's breath is a basic offensive spell.
24) . Alchemy is a very old art of obscure origin
that sought to transform base metals into silver and
gold; forerunner of the science of chemistry. Some
scholars hold that it was first practiced in early
Egypt and others that it arose in China and was
carried westward. ________ Alchemical equipment
included the alembic for distillation and the
kerotakis for sublimation. In its beginnings alchemy
was fundamentally a craft and embraced many kinds of
metalwork, including the use of alloys resembling
gold and silver. Alexandria is generally considered
a middle of early alchemy, and the art was
influenced by the philosophy of the Hellenistic
Greeks. The conversion of base metals into gold was
part of a general striving of all things toward
A) The word 'alchemy', as the Arabic definite
article al- indicates, is Arabic.
B) For others, the word 'alchemy' could have come
from the Greek khymeia, 'fusion', for example the
art of melting gold and silver.
C) The vast quantities of gold amassed by the
Pharaohs were the envy of contemporary and later
D) The Egyptians themselves forgot the original
significance of the sign and drew it as a necklace
with pendent beads.
E) It consisted chiefly of experiments with metals
and other chemical materials.
25) . ________ Dwarfism is intentionally produced
and perpetuated in certain species (e.g., in
breeding miniature dogs and cultivating dwarf
plants). Among humans, dwarfism usually results from
a combination of genetic factors and endocrine
malfunction. It can also be caused, however, by
acquired conditions, such as kidney disease.
A) Dwarfism is a condition in which an animal or
plant is less than normal in size and lacks the
capacity for normal growth.
B) Dwarves were taught to be the cursed creatures in
the Middle Age.
C) In the Middle East, dwarfs who were lucky enough
were used to be kept in the palace to entertain the
D) Dwarfism was very common in some of the islands
in the Pacific Ocean.
E) Throughout the ages, dwarfism was considered as a
hereditary disease only.