1) ......... Words that
were unacceptable 300 years ago are now commonplace.
English has always had a trademark of being a
comfortable language, the language of the common
people. Change in the grammar and diction of a
language is natural, and English is always
confronted with changes. Among them are the use of
slang, clipped word endings, and new dialects.
A) For hundreds of years, English has been
B) Some Conservatives do not like changes because
they claim that standard English is a perfect
C) American English, especially, is always adding
new words to its vocabulary for social, scientific,
or artistic reasons.
D) Slang is usually created by children or teens who
seek social status.
E) Conservatives look down upon slang because slang
is not used by people of high status.
2) The novel, Animal Farm, was written by George
Orwell and was published in 1946. ......... The
animals on Manor Farm are irritated .with the way
they are being treated, so they start a revolution.
The pigs, who were the smartest animals on the farm,
took control of the farm
while the other animals worked. Throughout the novel
the pigs lie to the other animals and change the
rules, of the farm to accommodate themselves.
A) George Orwell s real name was Eric Blair.
B) He was a political writer who wrote of his own
C) He was a man of intense feelings and fierce
D) One of the major characters in the novel, Animal
Farm, is Napoleon.
E) The story is about a farm in England around the
time of the Russian revolution.
3) Advertising's main goal is to persuade. They want
us to see the American way through their eyes.
....... Advertisers start this form of brainwashing
on us at a very early age. They lay the groundwork
of ideals early on because it is easy to persuade a
A) Children are forced to make their own evaluations
and most of the time they go along with the views of
what they see.
B) With the unending viewing of shows and
advertisements who could blame them.
C) They tell us what to eat, drink, wear, drive, and
D) Now that is a major amount of influencing on a
E) One day they want a matchbox car and a few years
later they want a real Porsche.
4) Throughout everyone's life we see skinny,
beautiful models and the thought that this is
"ideal". It is not surprising that there are so many
people in the world with eating disorders.
Everywhere we go there are pictures, billboards, and
posters of the "ideal" person. ........I
suppose if everyone had enough money to pay a
photographer, make-up artist, and to have the
correct lighting we would all be "ideally"
A) This is a cycle of rapidly eating a large amount
of food, and after doing so, vomiting to get rid of
B) This occurs at least twice a week for three
months in a row.
C) The person eats so fast that they may not even
taste the food, and may not even chew.
D) In reality these people are just like us and are
not any better than anyone else.
E) They gulp down thousands of calories in
carbohydrates and sugary foods.
5) People are able do many kinds of strange things
to make a world record. The world's largest pancake.
The longest earlobe. The person that can push a
train with his nose. The longest jazz concert. And
so on and on. ......... It is currently held by a
man named Poon Lim - he spent 133 days floating
around the South Atlantic in a life raft all by
A) Poon was born on Hainan Island which is located
off the southern coast of China.
B) There is one world record that we bet no one
wants to break.
C) So far nothing sounds abnormal here.
D) You are floating around the Atlantic Ocean
without a lifeboat struggling to keep your head
E) I mention that this is during the height of World
6) In the process of a flood and drought, the roots
of trees are shallow and virtually no nutrients are
obtained from the soil. ....... When the vegetation
is cleared, the source of humus is removed and the
natural infertility of the soils comes to be
obvious. As being another factor, this will cause
the soil to produce wasteful and useless products
which in turn will decrease the production.
A) The vegetation survives on its own humus waste,
which is plentiful.
B) It could also bring good fortune if climatic
regions are good.
C) The soils of Tropical Africa create another
D) All these causes the food's rate of growth to
E) Tropical soils are different from moderate soils.
7) Many people who are in opposition to gambling
consider it morally or theologically wrong. The
domestic violence and crime that might result from
obsessive gambling could lead to the breakdown of
the family and divorce. Gambling, especially the
lotteries, contribute to the attitude that a person
can get something for nothing, a belief many people
consider particularly armful to the nation's
morality. The states, by administering the
lotteries, have become party to this. .......
A) But they have also debased the values of their
B) The fast expansion of gambling across the United
States has not been well received by all Americans.
C) Many opponents do believe that government and
society leaders have had a choice between money and
D) By permitting gambling, government authorities
have contributed to making gambling publicly
E) The failure of many gambling initiatives during
the past few years indicates an opposition.
8) People who own pets were known to lead longer and
happier lives than those who do not have them. As we
get older, we come to be less active. ...... That's
why we need something in our lives to keep us busy
so we do not die prematurely; and a pet is the thing
to do it. This is may be because of the
companionship, exercise, responsibility and
friendship that they provide.
A) The more inactive we become, the higher our risk
of death is.
B) First, owning a pet forces one to take on the
responsibility of keeping it alive.
C) One's pet must be fed, watered, and kept in
D) This high bit of motion will at most prevent
E) This gives one a stable cardiovascular workout.
9) I think that everyone is really a teacher in his
or her own right. A teacher is the one that teaches
another an important lesson, a person that shapes
another's life. A teacher is the one who helps a
person to get on the right path, who is there to
lead them in choosing the best verdicts for
themselves. Teaching goes one step further when
choosing this as a career. .........
A) But there are many popular ways for students to
cheat in examinations.
B) Some students take their notes into the exam
C) It means dedicating your life to helping others.
D) Some students think that when they fail the
exams, they would have a lot of problems.
E) It is interesting to focus on the question that
why some students still do keep being lazy.
10) ........ Vegetarianism has been around for
hundred years, but recently we have seen the
outbreak of a more militant vegetarianism that is
inspired by the animal "rights" movement. Today,
vegetarian activists are throwing pies at Ronald Mc
Donald and the Pork Queen, writing "eating meat is
murder" in major locations, committing terrorist
acts of arson, and paying media campaigns equating
meat consumption with cannibalism.
A) Vegetarianism is the limitation of ones diet to
only vegetables and fruits.
B) World hunger is a result of lacking distribution
of food, not deficient capacity for production of
C) Our capacity to produce grain is so huge that we
actually pay farmers not to produce.
D) Though not done by everyone, hunting and fishing
bypass any potential ecological destruction
associated with plant or animal agriculture.
E) Diet is not only one important aspect of health.
11) American culture is made up of many different
cultures, all of which have contributed to the
American way of life. .......... Koreans are well
educated and have been involved in many
professional, technical, and managerial careers.
Afro-Americans have contributed music, science,
literature, entertainment, and many other things to
A) People like Bob Hope, who was born in England,
have contributed richly to our culture.
B) We are individuals from different cultures.
C) We are different, but we are all Americans.
D) Japanese are computer and business contributors.
E) All this proves that Americans are not just one
12) One of the reasons for the high population in
some parts of Guatemala is the land forms or
topography of Guatemala. Most of Central Guatemala
is too mountainous and rugged for humans to survive
on. In the north the land is more flat. ..........
The flat land is more suitable for building houses,
factories and other buildings. The only other area
of flat land is in the north, which is a desert and
is unsuitable for humans.
A) However in the western central area the water not
as polluted as elsewhere.
B) In the desert areas, there is basically no water.
C) There is also better soil quality in the north
than in the mountains.
D) In the Southern areas, there is a desert climate
with very little or no rain.
E) There are also more employment opportunities due
to the industries being built there.
13) The United States was divided into two groups by
the time the Civil War began: those who believed in
the complete abolition of slavery, and those who
were against the expansion of slavery. The
Republican party was formed in opposition to
southern expansion. .......... They believed that
slavery was a flawed system that made the south
ineffective and because the North's free labour
system was superior, it must be guarded from
A) The New Deal describes the program of US
president George Bush.
B) Their views were Free Soil, Free Men and Free
C) Depression, guarantee minimum living standards,
and prevent future economic crises.
D) However as time progressed, the focus drifted
E) In order to accomplish this monumental task,
several agencies were created.
14) Many social changes that were addressed in the
1970s are still the issues being confronted today.
.......... In spite of all the chaos, there were
some positive results: the civil rights revolution,
John F. Kennedy's bold vision of a new boundary, and
the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring
about progress add prosperity, however, much was
negative: student and against-war protest movements,
political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited
American people and resulted in lack of respect for
authority and the law.
A) We must be determined to strike forcefully at the
consciences of all Americans.
B) In that time of sorrow and guilt Martin Luther
King was murdered
C) There was an opening for peace between the races
that might otherwise never have presented itself.
D) The seventies was a decade of social and
E) In order to wrest from tragedy and trauma, the
will to make a better society went on.
15) ..........These people all have different
backgrounds, family environments, and experiences
that affect their views on politics. Because of the
diversity of its people, Australia accordingly has a
diversity of political views. It is the duty of the
federal government to protect the rights of each of
these people whether they are natives or white. The
only time the federal government should violate
someone's rights is when it negatively affects the
well being of others.
A) Australia is a melting pot of various cultures
from all different parts of the world.
B) I believe the federal government has an
obligation to protect the rights of its people.
C) Many children are forced to attend schools that
have less than adequate facilities.
D) The federal government has left some issues to be
addressed by the states and private industry.
E) Millions of Australians cannot afford health
care, and as a result, do not receive the treatment
16) Usually we automatically reject a person before
we know anything about who is he or she. We
immediately assume that this person is not the one
for us. Give yourself a chance to stop automatic
rejection and holding onto a predetermined image of
who you want. Take a deep breath and give each
person you meet a chance, for at least a moment or
A) In a sense we are all like longing for the light.
B) Each person we meet is another bridge, another
C) There is plenty of sun and light available, but
if we are closed we cannot let it in.
D) Catch yourself in the act of rejection and stop
it on the spot.
E) Our entire life consists of building bridges.
17) Hypnosis sometimes is employed to treat physical
problems with a psychological component, such as a
circulatory disease known as Raynaud's Syndrome. It
has also been used to initiate behavioural changes,
for example cigar smoking, obesity, insomnia, and
the overcoming of phobia's. Although hypnotism has
shown its uses as a fairly valuable medical tool, in
this modern "technological age" there are very few
physicians who use it. ....... Performed as a sort
of "Magic Show" it is used to cause some people to
laugh, and some people to be amazed.
A) Whenever attention is concentrated on an idea
over and over again, it spontaneously tends to
B) It begins with a man named Franz Anton Mesmer.
C) This was the generally accepted opinion of the
D) The major use of hypnotism in modern days, is
E) He was definitely a major influence in
contemporary hypnotherapy's acceptance by the
American Med. Assoc.
18) .......... Some people are stopped from seeing
their friends just because their relatives are
racist. It isn't fair for parents to make their
children agree with them if they are racist, the
children are seeing their friends because they like
them and they aren't discriminating against them
because of their race.
A) Care is needed when doing advertisements so that
any racial groups are welcome.
B) Many of the attacks have not been violent but
C) Some people are affected by racism because their
parents are racist.
D) Parents have been to schools to try and stop the
E) People believe that what they do is just fun but
they are unaware of the consequences it can have.
19) Our economy, values of exports, employment rate,
and to our everyday needs in society - we are always
directly or indirectly dependent on the mining
industry. ......... Nevertheless government and
mining companies have realized the problem, and have
and effort to correct it, helping to keep the
surrounding clean and healthy, also ensuring this
industry will be running smoothly and bringing in
money to create a good economic future.
A) In the old days, as a matter of fact only five
ore ten years ago every single car brand seemed to
have it's own personality
B) But as we discover, the mining industry does
contribute pollution to the environment.
C) One reason is that the automotive industry has
certain trends it has to follow, just like fashion
designers and musical composers.
D) Another reason is that many manufacturers
actually cooperate and by contracts copy each
E) The last and maybe the most logical reason is
that all manufacturers are striving towards 'the
20) A boxer's hands are wrapped in soft cloth
binding , over the bandages he wears padded gloves.
These gloves soften his punches and protect his
hands as well as his opponent from damage. The
gloves weigh ten or twelve ounces. Boxers wear
trunks and light weight shoes that lace just above
the ankle. ...... Both amateur and professionals
wear a protective leather headdress when training.
Amateur fighters may wear a headdress in actual
competition, though professionals do not. The
headdress called "helmet" covers the back and sides
of the head and ears.
A) The ring is a square platform measuring sixteen
to twenty-four feet on each side.
B) The ring floor stands three to four feet higher
than the floor of the arena.
C) A boxer may not weigh more than the maximum for
D) The rules followed by amateurs and professional
boxers do differ for the United States and in
international and Olympic Game competition.
E) A mouthpiece of hard rubber protects the teeth,
and a plastic cup protects the sex organs.
21) Many animals, such as a group of chimpanzee in
Africa, were observed and proved that a development
of animal culture is indeed possible. Culture,
unlike inborn behaviour, is usually learned or
taught. The unusual behaviour that was specifically
observed was a group of
monkeys who developed a strange habit of washing
their food before eating them. When a group of
scientists observed them, they realized that it all
began in 1953. ...... Then, she demonstrated this
technique to all her babies and friends. After 12
years, every monkey in the
troop had picked up this habit also. This is an
example of a developed culture within a group of
A) Unlike the rest of nature's animals, our
environment is primarily man-made and symbolic in
B) Geographical space and natural time are
transformed into social space and social time,
around whose definitions human beings orient their
C) One young female found potatoes on the beach and
washed it before eating.
D) Culture is a shared system of ideas about the
nature of the world and how and when people should
behave in it.
E) Culture also creates the rhythms of a society
that echo within the very biology of its members.
22) Siblings grow up together, they play together,
and they have fun together. But eventually they will
get their own friends and make their own decisions,
this also leads to a person's identity. Not all
people like same things or people. ......... There
is no reason to hate others, they just do not mix.
Friends also play a part in a person's developing an
identity, they are a good indicator of one's
A) Frank may be friends with Amelie, and Amelie may
like Caroline, but Frank may not like Caroline.
B) A person's religion can also play a big role in
C) Religion can have a rather large effect on a
person forming an identity.
D) A person's beliefs can easily lead a person into
making a decision, especially regarding ethics or
E) A person's identity is his own, they make it and
develop it however they choose to.
23) .......... It started as a game involving
kicking and handing, but later this branched off
into two separate sports: rugby and football, which
is what the British call soccer. Around the late
nineteenth century, British soccer began spreading
over Europe. Other countries also caught on, but the
U.S. was one of the most reluctant, and one of the
last to instigate soccer as a national sport.
A) The modern version of soccer came about in the
early nineteenth century, in England.
B) The North American Soccer League was formed in
C) The equipment used in soccer is also very simple.
D) A standard field of soccer was formed, as
regulated by the UEFA.
E) Soccer never gained popularity until the 1980's.
24) The distance of computer monitors and documents
depends completely on how clearly they can be read
at a certain distance. .......... For distance from
your monitor, you should be between 15 and 25 inches
away from your screen. Your screen should be
adjusted so that it is
between 20 and 35 degrees below your straight-ahead
line of sight. If the screen is much lower than
that, you can possibly end up bending.
A) The use of glare screens can reduce bright spots
caused by light reflecting on monitor screens.
B) Many heavy keyboard users have found the split
and adjustable keyboards to be more comfortable.
C) The general rule is to keep viewed material as
far away as possible if it can be easily read.
D) Wrist pads are usually the neoprene pads that
many people put in front of their keyboards.
E) If you catch yourself working against the brace
instead of with it, do not wear it.
25) Teens that drive drunk are at big risk. I'm not
blaming the accidents that involve drunk in just
teens. Drunk drivers come from of all ages. And I'm
not trying to say that all teens drink either. But
the ones that do and are stupid enough to say
they're sober and can drive home safe. ...........
A) Drunkenness limits the alcoholic's control of
normal behaviour and to perform the easiest
B) The alcoholic's main goal is to get something
alcoholic to drink.
C) Drinking usually continues until the person is
D) Family, friends and work are little concern
compared to the need for alcohol.
E) Those are the ones that put innocent citizens at