1. The main ends of government should be three;
security, justice, and conservation ____, and they
are things that only government can break about. At
the same time, none of them is absolute; each may,
in some circumstances, have to be sacrificed in some
degree for the sake of a greater degree of some
A) These are things of the utmost importance to
B) These things, however, did not exist in ancient
C) However important these three values can be
people were reluctant to fight for them
D) Furthermore, societies have them in degrees
E) On the other hand one cannot to without them
2. A helpful way to find the meaning of a word is by
using contextual clues.____. Even a very small
context can sometimes be helpful. For instance, in a
text on agricultural science, we would expect to
find words like crops, soil, weather conditions, and
A) But we know which concepts tend to appear in the
B) We would, therefore, not expect to find terms
taken from criminology or the history of art
C) In the same way, we expect a word to be followed
by a verb, for instance
D) A verb, for example, followed by a concept may go
together with an adverb
E) A context enables us to predict what is going to
3. ____. Even those students who are far behind can
and ought to be able to improve. Perhaps their
extreme disability will prevent them from reaching
their highest potential. However, this doesn't mean
that they cannot move ahead.
A) These students have failed for so many years that
they have developed antipathy toward the system
B) We do not mean to say that teachers are to be
C) Therefore improvement-even though very slow-is
the realistic goal
D) These students, it is hoped, have not been
involved in such a failure
E) In spite of making every effort, many teachers do
not succeed in helping students ,
4. The popular statement, 'Smith's credit is worth
half a million, means that Smith is believed to be
both able and willing to pay back at least that
amount. The statement,____. In determining a
candidates creditworthiness, credit analysts
emphasize the three 'C's'-character, capital and
capacity to get income.
A) only applies to those who are reluctant to pay
B) is absolutely misunderstood
C) indicates clearly that debtors should not be
faithful at all
D) 'His credit is bad' indicates lack of faith in
the borrower's willingness
E) however, puts too much blame on credit analysts
5. Western Europe made two unsuccessful attempts to
expand. The first one of these attempts was the
medieval movement in the Mediterranean.____. During
this period, the attempt to impose the political and
economic dominion of West Europeans ended in a
A) The most convenient common name for this one is
B) It is still unknown when this attempt was made
C) The second attempt was that of the Americans
D) In the interchange of culture, the West Europeans
received a greater impress from the Muslims
E) In the Crusades, however, they were able to gain
6. Want, neglect, confusion, and misery in every
shape and in every degree of intensity filled the
endless corridors of the hospital. The very building
itself was shamefully defective.____. There were not
sufficient bedsteads, and the sheets were of canvas
and very coarse. There was no furniture of any kind,
and empty beer bottles were used for candle sticks.
There were no basins, no towels, no soap, no brooms,
no trays, or plates.
A) There had been some delay in the delivery of the
medical stores sent out by various European
B) The structural defects were equalled by the
deficiencies in the commonest objects of hospital
C) The authorities had taken measures to ensure that
there would be an adequate supply of stretchers,
bandages and the most ordinary drugs.
D) Indeed, great detachments of the wounded were all
ready convertibly accommodated.
E) The first signs of hope came when a fair supply
of the most necessary objects arrived.
7. When the Crimean War broke out, Captain Gordon,
who was to become famous in the future as General
Gordon of Khartoum, was twenty-one. Before the year
was over, he had managed to get himself transferred
to the Crimea.____. Upon the declaration of peace,
he was sent to Bessarabia to help in determining the
frontier between Russia and Turkey, in accordance
with the Treaty of Paris. Upon this task he was
occupied for almost two years. Then he was
dispatched to China.
A) All through the war, especially during the siege
of Sebastopol, he behaved with conspicuous
B) For the historian, the circumstances of this
tragic end, so bitterly debated, and so
controversially described, stilt remain a mystery.
C) It was not in peace and rest, but in ruin and
horror, that he reached his end.
D) The news of the catastrophe reached England, and
a great outcry arose.
E) In fact, he was by no means in favour of the
Government's imperial policies in the colonies.
8. _____. The study found that morale was low among
secretaries. Many of them stated that they felt a
lack of respect for their work and that they were
not treated as full members of the company's
executive team. The study also demonstrated that
they were under-utilized.
A) First of all, we have made a list of tasks that
secretaries can perform in addition to the more
traditional tasks of typing and filing.
B) The changes we have made in the personnel system
of the company were in part the result of a study
conducted about secretaries over a six-month period.
C) In addition to the language training that has
been offered, the company is designing a training
program on office management for secretaries.
D) In upgrading office efficiency, managers also
play an important role by recognizing and
appreciating the work and career aspirations of
E) The questionnaire didn't provide them with any
9. It is an old wives' tale that reading in the dark
is harmful or will weaken the eyes. Apart from
looking directly at the sun, or another very high
intensify Light source, one does not hurt one's eyes
by using them. True, reading with inadequate light
may tire the eye muscles.____. Admittedly, the
proper level of illumination for reading is the
level with which one feels comfortable.
A) Moreover, light from behind is ideal for reading
and any close work.
B) Therefore, higher illumination can actually be a
C) On the contrary, one would feel more comfortable
if the Light were better.
D) It may even cause headaches, but it does no
E) In fact, there are new, inexpensive,
high-intensity lamps available now, which provide
higher illumination with lower wattage.
10. A simple idea could make flying much safer.
Tests in the US have demonstrated that cooling fuel
before it is put into an aircraft prevents explosive
fumes building up in the fuel tanks. For this
purpose, an American company has developed a system
that cools fuels to 1 degree Celsius or below,
before it is put into an aircraft. This is the ideal
safety temperature and nearly eliminates the chance
of an explosion in the fuel tanks.
A) Research has revealed that the fuel delivered to
an aircraft before take-off will heat up fast if the
aircraft is in the sun.
B) The explosion of the TWA flight 800 off Long
Island in the United States is thought to have been
caused by a fire in one of the aircraft's tanks.
C) As an aircraft climbs, the drop in pressure draws
more fumes into the tanks, and if this occurs safety
depends largely on the absence of a spark.
D) The US Federal Aviation Administration has since
been looking at many ways of making air travel
E) The idea is to minimize vaporization, so that
there is no danger of an explosion even if static
electricity or faulty wiring creates a spark.
11. ____. Periodic environmental cues such as dawn
or dusk or the change of the seasons, regulate these
clocks. There is scientific proof that matching
clocks to these cues helps animals live longer. In
fact, most researchers think that the clocks help
animals coordinate metabolic and physiological
processes for survival.
A) In the case of some insects, the biological
clocks are never affected by changes in the
environment in which they live
B) Biological clocks do not always enable animals to
live in harmony with their natural habitat.
C) Biological clocks allow organisms to anticipate
when to feed, mate, migrate, or, in short,
synchronize their activities with the environment.
D) Some scientists argue that biological clocks
disappear over time in populations raised in an
environment with no periodic changes.
E) Many people find it difficult to adapt to a new
12. In an earthquake, the toll depends largely on
four factors. ____. Then, there is the type and
quality of housing. The time of day is a further
significant factor. Lastly, there is the population
A) The first is the magnitude of the earthquake
B) All of these are outside our control
C) Of these only two can be controlled by man
D) If only we knew when an earthquake was likely to
occur, we could be better prepared
E) In these recent earthquakes, the toll of human
life was needlessly great
13. Economic liberalization, which is itself a vague
term, occurs in a variety of forms and in many
countries.____. With a few notable exceptions,
nevertheless, nearly every country in the world has
been affected by this trend. In the industrialized
world, it was epitomized in the ends and policies of
the Thatcher and Reagan governments. Also,
encouraged by the World Bank and IMF, most less
developed countries, including India, Brazil,
Argentina, Mexico have made some movement toward
A) In fact, the movement toward liberalization
relates to the change in thinking in the economics
profession in the 1950s and 1960s
B) Even Vietnam has taken some small steps toward
opening up its economy to the outside world
C) This policy recognizes the role of the state in
the stabilization of a country's economy
D) Next, however, in the question of the relation of
these trends to the overall global processes of
economic development and social modernization
E) It is, therefore, difficult, if not impossible,
to produce a list of countries that can be said to
have fully liberalized
14. D. H. Lawrence differed in many ways from his
contemporaries. Especially, he wrote with more
urgency and intensity than most.____. This is in
keeping with this subject matter that is so often
the dreams and aspirations of man.
A) This subject matter is all too often the personal
relationships of opposite characters
B) In fact, there is a poetic quality to much of his
C) He knew at first-hand the hardships of a coal
D) It was the working class and its problems that he
presented most accurately
E) Actually, he was someone of a rebel himself
15. Mercury, which is the smallest of all planets,
is the closest to the sun at a little more than
one-third of the earth's average distance.____. It
was first visited in March, 1974 by the space-craft
Mariner 10 that passed within a few hundred
kilometres of it. The craft relayed pictures on the
two following passes in September, 1974 and March,
1975. It still goes on to revisit Mercury every 176
A) The relayed pictures showed that the planet has
an approximately 59-day rotation period
B) It is only recently that we have been able to
gain any accurate information about it
C) Mariner 10 measured a small magnetic field at the
D) Today we are in possession of vast amount of
information about the planets
E) Obviously, it will take many thousands of years
to reach even the nearest stars
16. In spite of technological improvements which
allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no
simple matter to obtain oil from undersea fields.
Prospecting must be followed by the leasing of
potential oil-producing areas, and then by drilling
to see whether oil is actually there. Offshore
drilling platforms must be contracted most
proficiently so as to withstand the force of waves,
especially during the season for hurricanes.____.
A) Therefore, the technical difficulties of far more
extensive offshore operations do not discourage
specialists in petroleum engineering
B) Naturally, the search for petroleum has
repeatedly led geologists to sedimentary rocks under
C) It is a fact that by no means all of the land
resources of petroleum have been discovered
D) In fact, of California, Texas, and Louisiana, oil
companies have drilled into the sediments of the
shelf and are obtaining oil
E) Indeed, winds, storm waves, fogs and the
corrosive effects of sea water upon metal structures
are the major hazards that must be faced and
overcome in offshore oil production
17. National self-reliance in disaster relief is a
goal toward which all countries must strive. But,
international assistance may be required to provide
locally unavailable resources and skills for relief
and rehabilitation. Many agencies, associations,
groups and governments support countries affected by
natural disasters. ____. If properly coordinated,
international relief is beneficial to disaster
A) The rehabilitation period provides an opportunity
for making major changes in health-care methods, for
during it people are receptive to new ideas
B) The arrival of unsolicited medical assistance,
particularly in the form of volunteer physicians,
may be a persistent problem
C) A major disaster with high mortality leaves
orphaned children whose care may become the
responsibility of health agencies
D) Each has different objectives, expertise, and
financial support to offer, and over a hundred may
become involved in any single major disaster
E) Funding long-term projects from international
resources may prove difficult since many
organizations are reluctant to take on such
18. Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive and
irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and
physical functioning in human beings, and invariably
leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of
adult death in the United States. .........
Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being
made to combat Alzheimer's disease every year. To
fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer's
disease, one must know what it does to the brain,
the part of the human body it most greatly affects.
A) Many Alzheimer's disease sufferers had their
B) There was a loss of nerve cells from the Cerebral
Cortex in the Alzheimer's victim.
C) A large number of differences were present when
comparing the normal brain to the Alzheimer's brain.
D) Approximately ten percent of the neurons in this
region were lost.
E) Alzheimer's creates emotional and financial
catastrophe for many American families every year.
19. Most people don't know where the idea of the
laser came from. The idea for the laser came from a
machine called a maser. The maser was a tool that
was able to strengthen, or amplify radio and light
waves. ........ It was built by Theodore Maiman and
a group of American scientists.
A) Using the first letter of each main word they
named it laser.
B) The first laser was made in California in 1960.
C) The laser had everyone excited.
D) At first there weren't many uses for the laser.
E) It was done by coiling a simple flash tube around
a rod, and beaming powerful flashes of light at it.
20. As defined by the Webster's New Collegiate
Dictionary, a tornado is a tropical thunderstorm; a
violent, destructive whirling wind accompanied by a
funnel-shaped cloud that progresses in a narrow path
over land. .......These powerful windstorms usually
leave behind trail of ravaged buildings and their
distraught occupants. A tornado can be a few meters
to about a kilometre wide where it touches the
ground, with an average width of a few hundred
meters. It can move over land for distances ranging
from a couple of inches to many kilometres, causing
great damage wherever it touches down. Most
tornadoes spin counter clockwise in the northern
hemisphere and clockwise in the southern, but
occasional tornadoes reverse.
A) Damage to property hit by a tornado come from
B) Tornadoes can be found in various places at any
C) The number of funnels observed each year can vary
greatly in any given region.
D) Tornadoes occur mostly in temperate latitudes.
E) Hurricanes are made up of high-velocity winds
blowing in a circular pattern around a low-pressure
21. Human rights are universal, indivisible and
interdependent. Human rights are what make us human.
When we speak of the right to life, or development,
or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of
tolerance. ........... Without it, we can be certain
A) Tolerance will ensure all freedoms.
B) Another example is right in our own back yard.
C) They are no different today than centuries ago
when slavery was allowed.
D) One religion against another, it is all the same.
E) We should embrace the differences and share the
22. .......... Whether it is an addiction to drugs,
sex, gambling, or whatever, hardly anyone would be
willing to take that on an everyday basis. Most
people would agree that it is not pretty to see
someone throw their life away on addictions. It is
simply not attractive and thus, not many people
would want to be with someone with an extreme
problem like that.
A) An unfortunate reason for a break up, physical
disabilities also occurs at times.
B) More reasons why couples separate, addictions
often result in ugly break ups.
C) To some people, having children is the most
important priority in their adult life.
D) Being with a person, who becomes handicapped,
though unfortunate, is a big burden to place on a
E) Having a partner who has a paralyzing disability
might be too much for someone to take.
23. In 1900 a radio pioneer, Nikola Tesla, noticed
that large objects can produce reflected radio
signals that are strong enough to be picked up.
.......... So he predicted that such echoes could be
used to find the position and course of ships at
sea. But nothing was done about it until just before
World War II. In 1935, Robert A. Watson Watt and
other British scientists developed a system of radio
echoes that could detect approaching aircraft. This
later developed into the radar system that proved
effective against German air raids on Britain in
World War II.
A) The size of a radar set depends on the job it is
expected to do.
B) An important step in making radar possible had
taken place in the United States in 1925.
C) The new idea was to send out the radio signals in
short bursts, called pulses.
D) But all radar sets, regardless of their size, use
the principle of the echo.
E) He knew that reflected radio signals are really
24. The evolutionists had a hard time trying to
explain why dinosaurs became extinct. ....... Out of
all of those explanations not one of them was a
satisfactory one. A theory that works for large
animals would not work for small animals, and
vise-versa. Whatever happened, evolutionists agree
that it must have been a catastrophe on a world-wide
A) Then the mammals evolved into man.
B) The evolutionists believe, very strongly, that
dinosaurs were extinct millions of years ago.
C) Why did dinosaurs become extinct?
D) They had over fifty-five different theories that
would just come and go.
E) When these animals were called mammals, there
were even no people to walk on the earth.
25. Throughout the 1900's there has been numerous
polls taken that shocked everyone. The unemployment
rate for those who cannot read and write is
dramatically higher than for those who can.
Illiteracy is a hidden problem throughout the United
States. Another poll taken showed that an estimated
23 percent of Americans can read a stop sign but
cannot fill out an employment form. ...........
A) Next, this information is given to the Bureau of
Labour Statistics which is held in the labour
B) Of those who can read and write, large numbers of
adults cannot read and write past the fifth grade
C) The educational opportunities for minority groups
D) One may argue that education is low due to
E) These steps are also known as the fiscal point
and the monetary policy.