1) . The Japanese have a pure aesthetic sense; they
beautify, adorn and decorate everything they touch.
...... It is cut into an artistic shape and given a
colour scheme with carefully placed pieces of tomato
A) Presumably they get a great deal of satisfaction
out of such elegant displays.
B) The art of flower arrangement is particularly
well developed in Japan.
C) Many of these arrangement consist of merely two
or three flowers and a spring of green.
D) Naturally this is especially true of the women of
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich. It is a
work of art, designed to appeal not just to the
appetite but also to the eye.
2) . ........ Composers such as Schubert, Schumann
Listz, and Belioz sought a new freedom in musical
expression. Form became less important than content;
and that content often had literary connections.
A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all the
English Romantic poets.
B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most typical
representative composers of the romantic era.
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the
year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in
D) In fact, the Romantic movement itself did not
last very long.
E) Among the Romantic composers. Brahms has
generally been the most popular.
3) . Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the
brain isn't found out, but a protein molecule is
thought to be involved ....... On the theory that
the protein causes the disorder by travelling from
other tissues to the brain, researchers may now seek
to devise drugs that would block the protein and
stop it getting there.
A) If this is confirmed, it may lead to a
break-through in the treatment of the disease.
B) In fact it hardly seems worthwhile to carry out
further research into the Alzheimer disease.
C) Much research has already been carried out to
discover the causes of the disease.
D) Once the molecule had been isolated it was
possible to cure the condition.
E) The Alzheimer disease is just one of the many
incurable illnesses that inflict people in the
4) . Underdeveloped countries are those in which
economic structure and development are held back.
The causes of the condition of underdevelopment are
complicated, but two opposing sets of theories
dominates discussion. ..... On the other hand there
are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment
directly to the distortions of economic structure
and the exploitation involved in the relations
between the developed and the underdeveloped
A) In other words, development and underdevelopment
are mutually interdependent.
B) This view implies that the state and process of
underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable.
C) On the one hand there are those theories that
attribute underdevelopment to the internal
characteristics of the underdeveloped countries
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for
their own underdevelopment.
E) However, no country in the world is completely
isolated from the current monetary policies.
5) . The aim of a novel varies with its type.
Anthony Trollope's statement has a fundamental
validity: "The object of a novel should be to
instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme,
some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as
some children's novels and social novels. ......
However, one can say that the goal of most novels is
to reveal and stimulate thought about aspects of
human behaviour both individually and in personal
and social relationships.
A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular,
especially in the form of science fiction.
B) Therefore, a novel is a fictitious prose
narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words
C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as the
first notable English novelist.
D) At the other, some novels are meant simply as
entertainment, such as detective stories and much
E) At the same time, the reading public has
increased in numbers, especially among the educated.
6) . Since universities have existed there have been
arguments about what books should be taught to
students. ...... Others have maintained that such a
practice does not help students to distinguish
between the good and the bad. Instead, they have
suggested that students should be exposed to a wider
range of writing.
A) Some have claimed that students should be
introduced to the 'great' books of he world.
B) In fact, university authorities have always
concerned themselves with this problem.
C) This is not to say that all students should read
the same books.
D) The decision taken was that we limit ourselves to
the world classics.
E) The problem was heatedly debated right through
7) . In Britain today every household with a TV set
must, by law, pay for a license, which costs about
the same for a year as a trendy newspaper every day.
A few people, including those with non-colour TV pay
. Another important source is the selling
of its productions to other broadcasting stations.
A) The BBC enjoyed a monopoly until 1954.
B) Unlike the press, the BBC has rarely been accused
of being partial
C) The new payments are mainly compulsory
subscription to the BBC, which derives nearly all of
its funds from this source.
D) News programmes and films still attract the
E) Since the 1970s most British households have had
TV sets able to receive channels.
8) . The Times newspaper has three weekly
supplements all published and sold separately. These
are The Time Literary Supplement, The Times
Education Supplement, and The Times Higher Education
. It is devoted almost completely to
book reviews and covers all kinds of new literature.
A) Obviously they influence the way people think to
a considerable extent
B) Glossy weekly magazines cater for special
C) Both of these appeal only to a restricted number
D) Of these, The Literary Supplement has the biggest
number of readers.
E) They make good use of academic contributors on
issues related to education and literature.
9) . Generally, the farther north one goes in
England, the more adequate are the roads for the
traffic they have to carry. ...... But the roads in
the south of England, apart from the motorways which
radiate from London, must be among the most
inadequate in Europe. Traffic there frequently moves
at walking pace.
A) It is advisable to use the metro in London, for
traffic jams make other forms of transport
B) Wales and Scotland, for instance, are
well-catered for with great lengths of nearly empty
dual carriage ways.
C) The noise of the traffic has, in fact, increased
very little recent years.
D) Similarly, in London, traffic hardly moves faster
now than it did a century ago when vehicles were
E) Severa1 new schemes are now being considered to
alleviate this condition.
10) . The habit of thinking about the past as
divided into water-tight periods is particularly
dangerous when it comes to economic and social
history. Actually 'periods' usually have, as their
names imply, a purely political connotation _ 'the
Tudor age' or "the age of Louis XIV.
absorbed in its own daily task, it flows on like an
underground river, Only occasionally making eruption
into the upper daylight of politics.
A) This system, which originated in late medieval
times, only blossomed in modern times.
B) The characteristics of one age thus invariably
overlap into the next.
C) But economic and social life takes little heed of
the deaths of kings or the accession of new
D) The great innovators of social reform have all
too often remained unacknowledged.
E) The approach of the modern historian has been to
play down this all-important trend.
11) . A teacher's expectation of a child's ability
can often determine the child's actual performance
at school. If a group of children is divided into
two groups of equal aptitude but their teachers are
told that the children in group 1 have high IQs and"
are expected to do well, whereas in group 2 the
children are academically poor,
. This has been
born out by numerous studies in many fields, not
only in education.
A) the children in group 1 will do much better than
those in group 2.
B) the performance of each group is likely to be
C) the quality of the teaching could account for the
D) the children felt discouraged by the results.
E) the children in group 2 soon realized what was
happening and complained accordingly.
12) . The brain's main nutritional substance is
glucose. ___ . If a diabetic patient receives an
overdose of insulin there is a fall in the blood's
A) Moreover, the brain is the seat of intelligence.
B) Surgeons know exactly were to cut the affected
part of the brain.
C) The brain is very sensitive to changes in the
blood's glucose level.
D) This can have a harmful effect on a child's
E) Even so the effects of smoking cannot be
13) . ________ . This area is called a reservoir.
The water stored in it can be used for irrigation or
power generation; it can also be used to supply
water to homes and industry.
A) A dam is a wall, generally constructed across a
valley, to enclose an area in which water is stored.
B) A dam is a complicated structure, consisting of
C) The GAP project has already brought great
benefits to the region.
D) The site for any dam has to be chosen with great
E) South east Turkey is obviously even richer in
14) . People visit Cappodocia for several reasons.
Mainly they come for the exotic scenery and the
archaeological interest. _______ . Moreover in the
vicinity, there are many places of remarkable beauty
and historical significance.
A) Unfortunately it hasn't been sufficiently
B) The rock monasteries, in particular, draw large
C) It is only recently that the number of tourists
to Cappodocia has declined.
D) The majority of tourists coming to Turkey prefer
E) Few people realize that Cappodocia could be
developed as a tourist centre.
15) . Before 1950, in Britain, it was the
responsibility of the municipalities to provide gas
and electricity for public use. However this was
changed by the Attlee government; _______. Among
them were steel, coal and railways.
A) even the conservatives were impressed at the
B) they were extremely concerned about unemployment
and economic decline.
C) there was naturally a large amount of public
D) the policy they followed was bound to make them
E) all gas and electricity services were
nationalized along with several other industries.
16) . Bridges are among the most significant; and
often the most spectacular, of all civil engineering
works. __________ . Without them it would be
impossible to imagine how traffic in Istanbul could
circulate. Furthermore they are the symbolic link of
A) A further aspect of civil engineering is the
choice of a suitable site.
B) The construction of bridges requires a number of
C) One of the major problems posed by long bridges
is that of maintenance.
D) The bridges across the Bosphorus are a case in
E) Historically there has always been a dream to
construct a bridge across the Bosphorus.
17) . Following World War II, there was an era of
great optimism, economic growth and affluence. It
lasted, however, for only a short period of time.
_________ . This was largely owing to continuous
economic recession and a whole series of world
crises. A) The super powers should be held
responsible for this state of affairs.
B) Especially in the West the growth in the
population was noticeable.
C) Many people looked forward to a better future for
D) Indeed the European Community took serious
measures aimed at reducing unemployment.
E) From the 1970s onwards a new mood of frustration
and disillusionment set in.
18) . Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a
lack of consistency in the use of the words "art"
and "beauty". ..... We always assume that all that
is beautiful is art, of that all art is beautiful,
that what is not beautiful is not art, and that
ugliness is that negation of art. This
identification of art and beauty is at the bottom of
all our difficulties in the appreciation of art.
A) The painter generally expresses himself by the
representation of the visible world.
B) The relation between art and religion is one of
the most difficult questions that we have to face.
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct
movement, having little or nothing in common with
D) It might be said that we are only consistent in
our misuse of these words.
E) Some people are quite unaware of the importance
of proportion in architecture, and have no-sense of
shape, surf ace and mass.
19) . At the beginning of this century, a group of
writers, from scattered Midwestern towns came
together in bustling, commercial Chicago. From the
rough immediacy of the city, they forged a style
that was distinctively and unsparingly realistic.
...... In fact the critics were soon to describe
Chicago as the literary capital of the US.
A) Most of them, however ultimately moved away from
B) The "Chicago Renaissance", fuelled by these
writers, soon captured the attention of the rest of
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism
that there is a close relationship between cities
and their writers.
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast,
and not least in the field of architecture.
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways
from European realism.
20) . Italy is the great country of fountains, and
the fountains-of Rome are world famous. ..... It was
built in the time of Pope Clement Xll about the
middle of the eighteenth century. The fountain and
the place behind it are a good example of the
baroque style of architecture, which gives feeling
of magnificence, movement and excitement.
A) The Fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the
most magnificent in the city.
B) This style is especially effective for fountains
because of the moving water.
C) The water is brought underground from a spring
many miles outside the city.
D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is surrounded
by numerous other figures.
E) The city of Rome has been the capital of Italy
ever since it was established thousands of years
21) . ........ As a student he showed no special
talent for design. He finally graduated but was out
of work for nearly a year. Then he found a job with
Bowles, a little-known firm. Now, after only five
years he is one of the foremost designers in the
A) Mark is the only member of the Shaw family who is
working in textiles.
B) Mark Shaw's career is of no particular interest.
C) Mr. Shaw had always expected his son Mark would
be a lawyer like himself.
D) Mark, like other members of the Shaw family,
loves to travel.
E) Mark Shaw's success has surprised a lot of people
22) . Truly democratic countries do not go to war
with one another or sponsor terrorism against other
democracies. They do not build weapons of mass
destruction to threaten one another. They are more
reliable, open, and enduring trading partners, and
offer more stable climates for investment. ____.
A) On the other hand, conventional arms must also be
put under control to eliminate any threat of war in
B) In conclusion, no democratic country is strong
enough to safe- guard its own interests at the
expense of others.
C) However, the current global economic recession is
a growing threat to the interests of industrialized
D) Indeed, such major problems as pollution,
unemployment, political stability, and population,
growth can only be solved through global cooperation
E) Furthermore, they are more likely to honour
international treaties and value legal obligations.
23) . There are times when I find it almost
impossible to read for pleasure. Of course, I read
for a living; as an editor for a publishing firm, I
spend much of my working day with manuscripts,
proofs,newspapers and magazines. Also, many evenings
and weekends are consumed by books I have to read in
order to keep up. Some of this reading gives me
A) therefore, anyone interested in literature as
such had to devote much time to the great classics
of the world
B) yet, it is not the kind of pleasure I once
regularly got from literature
C) frankly, I can always find plenty of spare time
to read the books that I enjoy most
D) obviously, some people seem not have much of a
taste for detective and mystery novels
E) admittedly, editing new books for publication is
a job that is really to be done leisurely
24) . What is needed today to reduce the volume of
solid wastes is not stricter regulation, but a
better means of pricing waste disposal. Most people
and firms have no idea at all about the cots of
waste disposal. ________ . With such pricing
systems, the cost of waste disposal is not fully
understood; hence, effective waste-management
strategies must be introduced to communicate
toconsumers the true, total cost of waste disposal.
A) On the contrary, in some countries huge amounts
of public money and a lot of legal arrangements have
been put into use to control waste disposal
B) In some pollution cases, the problem is the
toxicity of the waste, not just its volume
C) Governments are expected to take more
comprehensive measures to prevent the deterioration
of the situation
D) Many firms have already been fined for negligence
E) In many countries, these costs are simply
included in property or income taxes
25) . Deterrence was a security system that
characterized the period of bipolarity from 1945 to
1989. ________ . With forces stationed in other
countries the great powers largely solved the
chronic of credibility of engagement. But deterrence
was an expensive and tension-building system, and in
this system the world from time to time veered
uncomfortably close to the edge of nuclear war.
A) Today, it is generally suggested that no great
power can return to a policy of isolation
B) However, such staggering sums prevented the
superpowers from dealing effectively with domestic
C) In other words, deterrence was relatively
effective , but also risky and costly endeavour
D) Through the threat of nuclear retaliation the
system constrained the behaviour of the two
E) Especially, it would be ideal if all major powers
were in favour of the progress of democracy and