1) . Deterrence was a security system that
characterized the period of bipolarity from 1945 to
1989. ________ . With forces stationed in other
countries the great powers largely solved the
chronic of credibility of engagement. But deterrence
was an expensive and tension-building system, and in
this system the world from time to time veered
uncomfortably close to the edge of nuclear war.
A) Today, it is generally suggested that no great
power can return to a policy of isolation
B) However, such staggering sums prevented the
superpowers from dealing effectively with domestic
C) In other words, deterrence was relatively
effective , but also risky and costly endeavour
D) Through the threat of nuclear retaliation the
system constrained the behaviour of the two
E) Especially, it would be ideal if all major powers
were in favour of the progress of democracy and
2) . It seems that in most countries, the
categorizing of the handicapped is undergoing a
change, in particular the idea of mental handicap is
being recognized. The case of autistic children is
an example of this.
A) It is now clear that these children can be
B) On the contrary, the handicapped can get
effective education in regular classrooms.
C) As far as the authorities concerned, more
attention should be given to budgetary restrictions.
D) Judging them from the data gathered recently
throughout the world the handicapped are not
receiving the care they actually need.
E) In fact, among the reforms proposed by the
Ministry is the reform of general education.
3) . In this age crime has become an everyday event,
and this has had an effect on our reading. Readers
no longer look for escape when they when they pick
up a crime novel. ______. That is, they want to
learn something about the real world, and about
those, good and bad, who inhabit it.
A) Crime novelists cannot be dismissed simply
because the incidents they describe are inherently
more interesting than those in other kinds.
B) Today the crime novel, in all its forms, proceeds
more surely and satisfactorily from well-established
C) Most novelists see crime as a fascinating topic
they can creatively write about.
D) They read it for the same reason they read novels
of any other kind.
E) A great majority of readers regard incidents in a
crime novel as more fantasy.
4) . Psychology refers to the human "psyche".
______. But how does one go about studying the mind
scientifically? Science implies measurement. How
does one measure something which can neither be seen
or heard nor touched?
A) This is why psychology has come to be known as
the study of behaviour.
B) It is not the only discipline that is concerned
with a systematic study of behaviour.
C) All of these disciplines are rightly regarded as
D) Sociology on the other hand, is devoted in
largest part to the nature and development of human
society and community life.
E) Gradually it came to mean the study of the
"mind", and still, in part, retains that meaning.
5) . ______. Size alone has clearly nothing to do
with the distinction,there are some huge colleges
and some small universities. Is the dif-ference to
be found in breadth or scope of instructional
offerings?Not according to the late Hastings
Rashdall, whose three-volume University of Europe in
the Middle Ages is a classic in the field.
A) Public institutions are in a different situation.
B) The content and structure of general education
need to be improved.
C) First, let us clarify the terms college and
D) In most countries colleges has come to the label
for a higher institution of limited or special
E) A number of colleges and universities have
experimented with curricular structures.
6) . For centuries, scientist and philosophers
speculated on the structure of the universe and the
existence of galaxies outside our own. But until the
twentieth century, they where able to do no more
than speculate. __________. Using giant telescopes,
ultraviolet and infrared interments and high-speed
computers, they are studying the formation of
galaxies for further insights into the nature of the
A) Meanwhile, the study of other galaxies has led to
an extraordinary insight into the possible structure
of the universe.
B) We now know, of course, that the universe is
designed on a scale for more grand.
C) After decades of speculation, in fact we have
started to penetrate to the very centre to our own
D) Now, however scientists have determined that the
universe is made up of millions of galaxies.
E) They have located regions that are very
disturbed, with hot, turbulent gases swirling around
us they rotate about the centre.
7) . Probably no artist of the Renaissance and
succeeding ages has drawn as much attention as
Michelangelo. He became a myth even in his lifetime.
Now a vast amount of source materials about him has
been collected, including letters, poems, and
contracts. _______ .
A) For him manual execution was a vital component of
the creative process and on occasion, seemed part of
the process of design it- self.
B) Nevertheless, modern history of art has formed an
image of the artist that is much nearer to
historical truth than those presented by his first
C) Precisely for the reason, the early history of
art is filled with distorted material which is
mostly mere speculation.
D) Indeed, one of the most striking peculiarities of
his work is the great number of pieces that were
E) Thus the artist's character, his daily habits,
and his working methods are known to us.
8) . Tourism has grown so quickly during the
previous "quarter of a century that ___. And it is
only during the 1980's that the problems of poor or
nonexistent planning have been seen and tackled.
A) is the change in tradition life styles that
alarms many anthropologists.
B) leave behind their rural homes and traditional
C) tourism as it developed in the 60's and 70's is
D) destroys the very things tourists come for.
E) it has become a problem in both industrialized
and developing countries.
9) . There are 5 oceans in the world. The Arctic
Ocean is the
shallowest with an average depth of on 990 meters.
Another thing is that it was the last ocean to be
A) This is the only ocean which is almost completely
unsurrounded by land.
B) But 20% of the world's oil pollution takes place
C) And yet it covers the north Pole
D) Most people do not know where it is.
E) And lots of different kinds of fish live there.
10) . All parents have to solve the problems of
freedom and discipline.The younger the child, the
more readily the mother gives in to his demands to
prevent disappointing him. ___. An example of this
is the young child's need to play with mud, sand and
water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this "mossy"
but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to
go on to the less physical pleasures of toys and
A) Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on
the satisfactory completion of the one before,
B) She knows that if his energies are not given an
outlet, her child's continuing development may be
C) Early upbringing in the home is naturally
affected both by the cultural pattern of the
community and by the parents' capabilities and their
D) Intelligent parents, however, realize that the
particular setting of each family is unique, and
there can be no rigid general rules.
E) Parents can ascertain what is normal in physical,
mental and social development by referring to some
of the many books based on scientific knowledge in
11) . There is no such thing as a memory in the
sense of some thing that can be seen, touched or
weighed. Memory is an abstraction referring to a set
of skills rather than to an object. ___. There are a
number of different ways in which a person can have
a "good" memory.
A) Memory consists of at least two different
B) One measure of memory is recall.
C) Some material may be remembered in visual form.
D) There are several explanations of why we forget.
E) Neither is there a single standard for judging a
good or poor memory.
12) . _____. They have a preference to nest in a
large hollow in a tree or even to occupy the
deserted nest of a hawk or crow. These structures
are large and rough, built of sticks and bark and
lined with leaves and feathers. Sometimes owls nest
on a rocky ledge, or even on bare ground.
A) Owls are poor home builders.
B) It takes a long time to raise a family of owlets.
C) The mother lays two or three eggs.
D) The mother stoically settles herself on the nest.
E) The parent birds are weary of family life by
November and drive the young owls away to establish
hunting ranges of their own.
13) . We all know that learning is significant. ___?
A dictionary might tell you that learning is
acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A
teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he
wants you to know for an examination. Your boss
might tell you that it is mastery of the task you
are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that
it is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due
to past experience. Obviously, learning takes place
in many ways and forms.
A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet can one depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered
14) . Someone once said that there are three sides
to every questionable issue: your side, my side, and
the right side. ___. For instance,the reactions to
the issue of abortion are usually divided into two
basic viewpoints: for or against. But the matter is
not that simple.Other questions begin to surface,
which turn the issue into a complex one and make it
necessary for us to look at it from manysides.
A) Unknowingly people become conditioned to speak
out of prejudice
B) In truth, there my be many sides, depending upon
the issue instead
C) As we mature, our beliefs are also shaped both
directly and indirectly by the media
D) Consequently our thinking process becomes
evaluated by other's opinions.
E) Even when we think we are acting as individuals
by rejecting the ideas of one group, we are often
just accepting the ideas of another.
15) . Some sociologists are concerned that America
is no longer "a melting pot," but "a salad bowl."
Different from the most earlier immigrants who were
willing to learn English and wanted to "melt" into
American life, many of today's immigrants do not see
the need._____? How will all this affect American's
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the
cities rather than on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of
American's population by the year 2000
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when
they arrived in America.
E) How far back can an American trace his roots
16) . ___. The faltering economy they inherited was
additional pressure from those newly unemployed,
including the million man army of the former regime.
There were critical
shortage of foreign exchange and gold, much of which
had been stolen in the final days of the war. There
were also at least two million new refugees, almost
10% of the population. Virtually, the country was in
a state of total bankruptcy.
A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive
problems to the new leaders of the country.
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized
by the new Vietnam government
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government
has continuing military activity
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam
was to get people to return to the countryside.
E) In their first months in power Vietnam's new
leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of
thousands of people to move back to their farms.
17) . Getting information on a possible adversary or
adversaries is only the start of intelligence
process. The raw material, once in hand,must be
drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated
before it becomes useful knowledge. ___. From this
appraisal,which points to his most probable course
of action, the target state can chart a course of
action best designed to meet the developing
A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have
long been debated
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the
adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve
C) But the richest source is usually the secret
agent, who is always a highly skilled and
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually
classified and limited in circulation
E) In recent decades technology has enormously
lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration
18) . In the 1900s cancer was almost always fatal;
by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was
saved; by 1975 treatment was successful in one out
of every three cancer patients . ___.
A) New evidence suggests that the highest risk for
lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke.
B) Indeed every one knows that cancer refers to a
group of over 100 different diseases
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half
of all cancer patients can be saved if present
knowledge is applied promptly in every case.
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become
an important new concern for social workers.
E) The aim of cancer rehabilitation is to help the
patient lead as normal a life as possible.
19) . The science of computers and the technology of
their use are broad and complex subjects.
. As a
result, as in other similar fields so in computer
sciences, there is a great variety of terminology
A) Even children in primary schools now learn to use
B) Obviously there are several types of computers
which would serve this particular purpose
C) The languages the computer understands are easily
under stock by even ordinary people.
D) One recent development is that computers are
getting smaller and smaller
E) Moreover the rapid rate of change in this field
has contributed still further to this complexity
. The feudal lords in England had always
run their own law courts and profited by the fines
paid by those brought to court. But King John took
many cases out of their courts and tried them in his
own, taking the money for himself.
A) King John all the time had the full support of
the feudal lords
B) The administration of justice in Medieval England
was completely centralized
C) King John, who lived in the 13th century, was
unpopular mainly because he was greedy.
D) Medieval economy in England was based on
E) The history of the British Parliament goes back
to the signing of Magna Carta
21) . The main power of the media lies in the fact
that it can shape what we know about the world and
can be a main source of ideas and opinions.
This power is greater if we consider all the various
media together, not just one, such as the Press.
A) The most influential media is obviously
B) Indeed it can influence the way we think and act
more than we realize
C) Journalists are jealous of the power of
D) In recent decades the main concern of the media
has been Democracy.
E) Most governments neglect the influence of the
media on society
22) . All considered, the United States has the
world's most effective overall economy.
increase in efficiency has in part been made
possible by the fact that this sector is less
heavily unionized than the manufacturing sector.
A) Unfortunately many American car manufacturers
have lost a sizable share of the world market.
B) In fact Japan has become one of the biggest
exporters of high-tech goods.
C) Many American steel plants have entered a period
D) Europe, however, has been making itself more
efficient in the services industry
E) Competition from Germany is a threat both to
Japan and the US.
23) . When Mikhail Gorbachew came to power in 1985,
the Soviet Union had the only advanced economy that
had not joined the computer age. As a result of this
Soviet-manufactured products found no customers in
world markets. He realized that, to modernize the
country, it was essential to permit the free
exchange of scientific and technological ideas
A) He played a constructive role in the reduction of
weapons of mass destruction.
B) The average income, over the last five years, has
C) The process of industrialization, therefore, came
to a halt.
D) Any radical political change would noticeably
have encountered fierce opposition.
E) This, indeed, was the policy he followed while he
was in power.
24) . The most important idea of the 19th century
was that everyone had the right to personal freedom,
which was the basis of capitalism. This idea had
spread widely through Adam Smith's book Wealth of
Nations written in the 18th century.
laws, they claimed, meant more freedom, and freedom
for individuals would lead to happiness for the
greatest number of people.
A) The British government at this time was reluctant
to make use of his ideas
B) The result was several laws were passed to
prevent people carrying guns
C) Obviously Adam Smith was well informed about
working conditions in the factories
D) After Adam Smith, several capitalist economists
argued that governments should not interfere in
trade and industry at all
E) By the turn of the 20th century, capitalism had
grown less popular outside England.
25) . What is soul? From Plato onwards, many answers
have been given to this question, but no one answer
has ever been found to be sufficient. .........
Presumably we must mean something by it.
A) His definition, quite understandably, soon
returned to favour.
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use.
C) At a still later period soul and character were
D) If there had been further developments in this
line, they may have proved significant.
E) The new step would then have been to
differentiate between soul and body.