1) . Mankind's continued existence depends on two
fundamental activities, agriculture and mining. In
case of agriculture, the soil can be managed so that
year after year it
will produce good harvests....... Once a mineral or
fossil fuel has been removed from the ground it has
gone for ever.
A) This is why few people are now going in for
B) With mining the situation is very different.
C) In many countries industry has replaced
D) The consumption of raw materials has begun to
E) Climate is another factor influencing
2) . Some anthropologists are concerned that America
is no longer "a melting pot", but "a salad bowl".
Unlike most earlier immigrants who are willing to
learn English and wanted to "melt" into American
life, many of today's immigrants do not see the
need...... ? How will all this affect America's
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the
cities rather than on farms?
B) What was city life like for most immigrants?
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of
America's population by the year 2000?
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when
they arrived in America?
E) How far back can an American trace his roots? .
3) . With the Renaissance the arts ceased to be
mainly religious. The heavens fell into background
and the earth came to the fore. ...... Power
pictures were painted of the angels in heaven and
more of the people in the world.
A) There was obviously a great deal of corruption in
B) The Renaissance means the rebirth of classical
C) Leonardo da Vinci, for instance, painted many
pictures with religious themes.
D) Michael Angelo is a typical product of
E) The trend was to build palaces rather than
4) . In 1924 the stock market crashed and the Great
Depression of the 1920's began
.. and almost
immediately the people's confidence in its
government and its political leaders vanished.
A) Economic theory has never really explained how it
B) There was to be terrible suffering in both Europe
C) The prosperity that had seemed so permanent now
D) Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath during these
E) The road to recovery was a long and slow one
5) . In developed countries today, advances in
economic conditions and in public health have almost
eliminated the problem of infectious diseases as
disasters. In developing countries, however,
infectious diseases continue to cause primary
disasters. This is frequently true of such diseases
as measles, smallpox, malaria, cholera, yellow
fever, and typhoid fever.....
A) The United Nations has already set up various
control centres in South America for the improvement
of public health
B) Natural disasters, particularly droughts and
floods, frequently produce ecological changes in the
C) These are practically unknown now in the
D) Every government regards public health as one of
its primary responsibilities
E) Therefore, Turkey has never experienced an
epidemic which has turned into a disaster.
6) . Culture never advances. It loses on one side as
much as it gains on the other....; but this change
is not one of improvement. For everything that is
given, something is taken. Society acquires new arts
and loses old instincts.
A) It undergoes continual change
B) The world is faced with a population problem
C) Recent discoveries have brought few changes in
D) Every society has its own moral code
E) It is now much easier for man to adapt himself to
7) ..... For instance, earthquakes cause many
injuries and deaths; floods leave most of the
survivors uninjured. A volcanic eruption may take
some time to turn into a major natural disaster.
Therefore, medical care and supplies are especially
important after earthquakes.
A) There is often a direct relationship between the
type of disaster and its effects on health
B) Flood waters can contaminate medical supplies
C) After disasters, effective relief efforts are
organized by various international and national
D) Every disaster puts an economic burden on the
E) The government has sent medical teams to the
8) . One of the most distinctive English
contributions in the field of economic thought is
the idea of scientific management. The concept
appeared as early as 1873, although it has since
acquired new meanings. Today the manager must not
only be familiar with the goods produced and the
process used;.... Indeed, management has become a
A) but he likes to travel around the world to market
his good, enjoy himself, and not to be concerned
about economic problems
B) certainly he must keep a record of his employees,
bargain for higher wages, and design new factories
C) but he must also have a practical knowledge of
how to analyze essential facts in relation to
everything else that affects the economy of
D) and it is very useful for him to attend business
conferences, meet different people, read as much as
possible, and invest in hard currency
E) however, he is not expected to understand and
follow new developments in his field
9) . We must enjoy before we can criticize; but we
must, by the time we begin to grow up, develop our
critical sense along with our sense of enjoyment....
Thus, criticism can help us understand why we like
something, and this increases our
A) However, a critic is the one who decides what
constitutes greatness in art and literature
B) We are often warned that criticism destroys
C) In fact, one poet differs from another not in the
subject of his poetry but in his treatment
D) Indeed, critics are the men who have failed in
literature and art
E) The two should develop together
10) . In China , Japan and other oriental countries,
where tea is the national drink, people almost never
use sugar in their tea........................... .
Many people everywhere want their tea and coffee
very hot, but most Americans drink iced tea and
sometimes iced coffee, especially in the summer.
A) But in England, where tea is also a national
drink, many people use sugar.
B) Coffee is a favourite drink of people in all
parts of the world.
C) Some people put cream and sugar in their coffee.
D) Nomads, who use a lot of tea, like to boil it and
E) Nomads prepare it in a special way.
11) . ......................... . They ate anything
they could find. Some lived mostly on plants. They
ate the fruit, stems, and leaves of some plants and
the roots of others. When food was inadequate, they
ate the bark of tree.
A) Some people ate insects and small animals like
lizards that were easy to kill.
B) Men learned to make weapons with which they could
kill animals for meat.
C) People who lived near the water ate fish.
D) Long ago men spent most of their time looking for
E) A few people in the world still eat same foods
their ancestors ate hundreds of years ago.
12) . This was a significant day for George, and he
had eaten his breakfast quickly.
........................ First he put on his
fur-lined jacket. Then he put on mittens and boots
to project his hands and feet from cold. Finally he
picked up the gun he had cleaned care fully the day
A) As soon as he finished, he could no longer wait
and he went out.
B) For the first time he was going to hunt seals
C) When George stepped out of the house, the dogs
D) His family was proud of him.
E) In a minute he was down on his hands and knees.
13) . Most people in England find the prices of good
restaurants too expensive. Many people are so busy
that they don't have time to cook for themselves.
Others live alone, and feel it is not worth cooking
just for one person, ......................... . The
latest statistics show that Britons spend 2.2
billion pounds each year on fast food.
A) Chinese restaurants, Indian restaurants and
Hamburger bars are becoming more and more popular.
B) Ordinary people can't afford to pay 30, 40, or 50
pounds for a meal for two.
C) This has led to massive increase in the fast food
D) Britons spent over 619 million pounds on fish and
chips last year.
E) Many people prefer to eat in the comfort of their
14) . My most embarrassing experience happened when
I had just finished university. I had just started
teaching in a secondary school. One morning my alarm
clock didn't ring. I had forgotten to wind it
A) I had put on one black shoe and one brown shoe.
B) When I arrived , the students had already gone
C) After two or three minutes, the students began
D) When I jumped into my car, I noticed that I had a
E) I woke up at half past eight and school began at
15) . ....................... . For one thing, more
than ten percent of all old citizens are rather
poor. As a matter of fact, recent statistics suggest
that approximately one-seventh of all people over
the age of sixty-five live below the poverty level.
Aged people also have more health problems than
A) We are all scared of being old.
B) Old people should be sent to old age homes.
C) Many old people prefer to live by themselves.
D) Old people if they have something to do not feel
E) Some of the older people in the United States
face a number of serious problems.
16) . In Bangladesh the last smallpox patient was
found in October 1975. Since that time no more
smallpox patients have been found anywhere in Asia.
The recent smallpox patient in the world was
reported in Somalia in Africa in 1977. ........
A) Smallpox is one of the most dangerous diseases.
B) The smallpox virus is transmitted from one person
C) The smallpox virus cannot live in water, animals
or food; it can only live in a human being.
D) There is no longer any smallpox in the world
E) Each smallpox patient can infect many other
17) . .............. A number of different forms of
transportation are used to get across. These contain
ferry boats, hydrofoil boats, hovercraft, and
airplanes. Possibilities for the future include a
channel tunnel and airships.
A) The English Channel has always been an object of
B) There are many swimmers who have attempted to
swim across the English Channel.
C) Over 15 million people cross the English Channel
D) The English Channel may be at times quite
dangerous to cross.
E) The easiest way to cross the English Channel is
18) . .....................................
Overcoming early morning drowsiness is a problem
faced by most people that begin work early. For
many, the solution is very straightforward: they
drink two cups of coffee and the feelings of fatigue
disappear. This is the effect of caffeine.
A) Most people find starting work early in the
B) One should go to bed early if he has a job
requiring early hours.
C) Some people drink coffee all day long.
D) According to doctors, drinking too much tea is
E) Life has always been difficult for workers.
19) . ........................... . Infants usually
please this very basic need in the course of an
ordinary day with their parents through feeding,
kissing, bathing, etc. However, if a baby is
neglected or even mistreated by being deprived of
touch, his development will suffer on all levels
-physical, intellectual, and emotional. Some of the
children have even been known to
die from this lack of tactile stimulation.
A) Most families work hard to provide a good life
for their children.
B) Infants usually need to play with their toys,
C) Children, if healthy, will develop a rapid growth
of intellectual capacity.
D) Infants die at an early age if proper health care
is not provided.
E) Physical contact is an important factor in an
infant's overall development.
20) . Taken in modest amounts, caffeine found in
coffee can help some people to work more
professionally. ............................... More
than two cups of coffee a day can cause unpleasant
symptoms such as nervousness, irritability, stomach
pain, and insomnia.
A) That is why some people drink coffee all day
B) However, some people prefer tea.
C) However, excessive indigestion of caffeine can
cause several irritating, unhealthy side effects.
D) It is better to drink coffee in the morning than
in the evening.
E) Children should not be allowed to drink coffee.
The problem is enormous and complex. Many people in
undeveloped countries do not wish to have fewer
children. Effective birth control
precautions are largely unknown in these countries.
The programs concerning birth control are often
A) Governments of some undeveloped countries are
desperately attempting to curb population growth,
with little success.
B) Developed countries usually have zero population
C) At the present time the world population
continues to grow at a speedy pace.
D) Death rate always exceeds birth rate in
E) Unemployment and the fast population growth in
undeveloped countries are two major problems.
22) . Platinum, which is both rare and beautiful, is
proving to be one of the strongest air-cleaners.
Silver, which was once considered too valuable and
too soft for anything except for
jewellery, now has applications in the field of
medicine as antiseptic. Gold, the most precious
metal of all, has been found to give relief to some
A) Most precious metals are rare.
B) Many people are fond of precious metals.
C) States with rich metal deposits are growing
D) Science is finding new uses for precious metals.
E) These valuable metals have always been treasured
23) . Snack foods are usually worthless. Actually,
they contain too much sugar and too much artificial
ingredients. For instance, the flour of most snack
crackers has been so refined
that it has been left with no nutritional value.
Potato chips are another example of poor-quality
food. Too much salt and too much fat rob the potato
of its value for nourishment......................
A) Children like snack foods very much.
B) Most people like eating snack foods watching
C) Snack foods are becoming more and more popular.
D) Most snack foods on market today have good taste.
E) It is no wonder people call them junk food.
24) . .......................................The one
most people are familiar with is the desk
dictionary. Another kind is the pronouncing
dictionary, which is related to a word's
pronunciation more than with its meaning. A third
type is the bilingual dictionary, that lists the
words in one language and attempts to give
equivalent meanings in another language.
A) A serious language learner always works with a
B) Dictionaries have always been popular with
C) The prices of dictionaries change according to
D) Despite the popularity of dictionaries, it is
really difficult to find a good dictionary.
E) There are several kinds of dictionaries.
25) . Pearls are gathered in Japan by men known as
pearl divers. In fact, pearl divers do no really
dive but are lowered by a rope to the bottom of the
sea. They work in pairs, with one remaining at the
surface to help the other return from
A) Many tourists to Japan buy pearls.
B) Pearl divers are generally very strong men.
C) Some pearl divers may become very rich.
D) An experienced diver can stay down about a minute
and a half and can often make as many as thirty
dives in one day.
E) Pearls are expensive all over the world.