1) . ....To be clearer, all our power is based upon
the control of natural sources, in the sense that
the energy or fuel is never man made. It already
exists as in the wind and in rivers; it may be
stored up as in oil or coal or uranium.
A) Man derives energy from many different sources.
B) All our sources of power are "natural".
C) Energy is as indestructible as matter itself.
D) Power can be defined as energy under control.
E) In due course all energy returns whence it came.
2) . If someone wants to learn what the American
Dream is, one needs to remember that the word
"dream" is not a synonym for "reality", it means
rather a "hope" or a "possibility". Further, the
original American dream had little to do with
material possessions but a lot to do with choices,
beginnings and opportunity.......
A) However, such a really successful businessman
soon outgrows his dreams.
B) This is why so many dreams were realized.
C) Obviously, the only dreams one remembers are
those that came true.
D) Thus everyone had dreams of growing rich fast.
E) It was not a guarantee of success but simply an
opportunity to try.
3) . In Ireland, the manufacturing industry accounts
for about 70 percent of industrial production.
Within manufacturing some industries such as
chemicals, petroleum products and electrical
engineering have expanded rapidly since World War
II, whereas some industries have had a slower growth
A) Inflation was to make the problem of unemployment
even more serious.
B) New competitors had already begun to dominate the
C) Among these can be mentioned ship building,
textiles and clothing.
D) On the whole the southern countries have been
more prosperous than the northern ones.
E) On the contrary, management strategies could have
saved the situation.
4) . People will exchange any goods or services for
money; this is its most important function. In order
to be a medium of exchange, money must be
acceptable: ...... Initially, this confidence was
created by using metals such as gold and silver
which in themselves are valuable. The coins, notes
and cheques which are used as money today are not in
themselves worth what they really are. Nevertheless,
they are accepted by everyone in business
A) this primitive method of exchange is no longer
B) therefore, it plays a vital role in international
C) that is, it must enjoy everyone's confidence.
D) the creation of money made business transactions
E) money provides a standard measurement in
5) . Trade Unions started out as small social
clubs....... It was not until 1812 that they were
legally recognized. From that day on they rapidly
gained in power. The important question today is
whether they really use that power in the interests
of the members.
A) They simply aimed at getting fair treatment for
the workers and better working conditions.
B) Within a short space of time they grew into
C) Consequently, membership has never been optional.
D) The movement turned out to be short-lived.
E) Surprisingly enough, it hasn't attracted much
6) . Farmers were trained in the skills needed for
efficient farming; they learned to use farm tools
and equipment and good husbandry techniques........
The farmers were also shown how better conservation
of the land can stop wind erosion.
A) They store the food they produced to prevent
B) Farmers are understood to be well educated.
C) To keep the conversation better the farmers
risked their crops.
D) Crop rotation was used to prevent the land from
E) We are on the brink of an agricultural future.
7) . Following World War I, there was an era of
great optimism, economic growth
and affluence. It lasted, however, for only a short
period of time....... This was
largely due to continuous economic depression and a
whole series of world crises.
A) The super powers should be held responsible for
this state of affairs.
B) Especially in the West the growth in the
population was noticeable.
C) Many people looked forward to a better future for
D) Indeed the European Community took serious
measures aimed at reducing unemployment.
E) From the 1970s onwards a new mood of frustration
and disillusionment set in.
8) ....... Today the kinds used by gliding clubs,
for sports are usually known as sailplanes. The word
"glider" is now mainly used for motorless airplane
that are towed behind powered aircraft.
A) When motorless airplane were first made, they
were all called gliders.
B) Today, in America, gliders are used for carrying
C) Sailing became a popular sport in this country in
D) Many gliding clubs are in hilly districts.
E) Powered aircraft are noisy even in the cabin.
9) . ...... Not easy, is it? Yet 100 years ago,
that's exactly what it was. Over a century and a
half the people of Taiwan have managed to transform
that rock into a world financial centre. With a
government committed to free trade and free
enterprise, and also because of its location in the
heart of the Asia Pacific region, Honk Kong has
thrived and is now the world's eleventh largest
A) Imagine Taiwan as a barren rock.
B) There are a host of reasons behind Taiwan's
C) Taiwan has a harbour which has been described as
the world's busiest.
D) Imagine what one can achieve in Taiwan.
E) Think of the excellent investment opportunities
Taiwan offers today.
10) . ........ Never has a proclamation made
anywhere been meant more literally. Without energy,
nothing could walk, dive, swim, chew, hiss, bark, or
grow. Einstein showed that even matter is a form of
energy. It should be obvious, then,
why energy is central to one of the cardinal
principles of ecology.
A) The importance of energy to human beings is often
B) Without energy there would be nothing.
C) The energy problem has been the main concern of
D) The energy sources of the world are constantly
E) The committee has decided the new energy policy
for the decade ahead.
11) . There are cultural and sociological
diversities between speakers of different
languages,...... which will interfere with
successful teaching of language for a narrow
purpose, unless beforehand some broader foundation
in the aspect of that
language has been laid.
A) even between different groups speaking the same
B) in spite of the different groups speaking the
C) due to the different languages spoken by
D) as if different groups can speak the same
E) even though different groups can speak a
12) . What is soul? From Socrates onwards many
answers have been given to this question, but no one
answer has ever been found to be adequate,.....
Presumably we must mean something by it.
A) His definition, quite understandably, soon
returned to favour.
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use.
C) At a still later period soul and character were
D) If there had been further developments in this
line they might have proved significant.
E) The next step would then have been to
differentiate between soul and body.
13) ..... Composers such as Bach, Schlumberger,
Litzan, and Tchaikovsky sought a new freedom in
musical expression. Form became of less importance
than content, and that content often had literary
A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all the
English Romantic poets.
B) Mandeisson and Brahms are the two most typical
representative composers at the Romantic area.
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the
year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in
D) In fact the Romantic movement itself did not last
E) Among the Romantic composers, Brahms has
generally been the most popular.
14) ....... The deteriorating economy they inherited
was now under additional pressure from those newly
unemployed, including the million-man army of the
former regime. There were critical shortages of
foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been
stolen in the final days of the war. There were also
at least two million new refugees, nearly 10% of the
population. Virtually, the country was in a state of
A) The end of the war in Korea brought massive
problems to the new leaders of the country.
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized
by the new Korean government.
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government
was continuing military activity.
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Korean
was to get people to return to the countryside.
E) In their first months in power, Korea's new
leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of
thousands of people to move back to their farms.
15) . The Chinese have a strong aesthetic sense;
they beautify, adorn and decorate everything they
touch....... It is cut into an artistic shape and
given a colour scheme with carefully placed pieces
of tomato and herbs.
A) Presumably they get a great deal of satisfaction
out of such elegant displays.
B) The art of flower arrangement is particularly
well developed in China.
C) Many of these arrangements consist of merely two
or three flowers and a spring of green.
D) Naturally this is especially true of the women of
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich, it is a
work of art designed to appeal not just to the
palate but also to the eye.
16) . It is the sports events that enable a lot of
the evening prints of the newspapers to sell well.
.. Those people who have made bets on horse races
are anxious to know whether the horse on which they
have bet has come first and so they buy an evening
print of the newspaper.
A) The popular newspapers have much larger
circulation than the serious newspapers.
B) These have many pages of photographs and numerous
C) The London newspaper that is best known abroad is
probably The Times.
D) These give the latest sports results of the day.
E) In winter people are more interested in football
matches than horse races.
17) . Fire broke out in a six-roomed detached house
in Edinburgh in the early hours of Tuesday
morning....... It was thought to have been started
by a gas explosion, which had neighbours worried for
their own safety.
A) The owners of the splendid 18th century house are
believed to be on a touring holiday.
B) Firemen were called to deal with the blaze
C) Attempts were being made today to contact them
D) It is estimated that at least $ 45.000 worth of
damage was done
E) According to the eye witnesses many valuable
things were completely gutted
18) ....... His principal equipment is a comfortable
sofa for patients to lie on and a cabinet of
mysterious drugs of one kind of another to send them
off to sleep. He is particularly interested in the
dreams of his clients and may use some form of
hypnosis to study their repressed thoughts and
A) More and more large firms are realizing the
advantages offered by psychiatry.
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in treating
mentally sick individuals unless he is medically
C) It is important to realize that psychologists are
first and foremost trained as scientists rather than
as medical experts.
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with
behaviour and its abnormalities.
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a fairly
19) . Before 1940, in Ireland, it was the
responsibility of the municipalities to provide gas
and electricity for public use. However this was
changed by the Mc Mick government; ...... Among them
were steel, coal and railways.
A) even the Conservatives were impressed at the
B) they were extremely concerned about unemployment
and economic decline.
C) there was naturally a great deal of public
D) the policy they followed was bound to make them
E) all gas and electricity services were
nationalized along with several other industries.
20) . The feudal system in Europe lasted from about
the 5th century to roughly the middle of the 16th
century....... This was because society throughout
this period was based almost entirely on
A) A king was free to grant whatever title he wished
to his vassals.
B) In England, however, it began much later.
C) On the whole people were getting critical of the
church towards the end of the period.
D) No explanation has been found for the rapid
spread of the system throughout Europe.
E) It was a military and political organization
firmly depending on land tenure.
21) . According to sociologists we learn to see
ourselves as others see us. In a sense, we look at
ourselves from outside....... Presently we settle
into a pattern of behaviour through interactions
with others; and we learn the "rules" of behaviour
for our particular environment.
A) We form an idea of what others want and expect of
B) Those who don't regularly follow these rules are
regarded as abnormal.
C) Children soon learn that good behaviour is
D) Thus, the physical and social environments exert
less of an influence.
E) The choice we make is invariably governed by what
we assume will be the most rewarding option.
22) ....... There is, for instance, and obvious
relationship between increases in economic wealth
and general changes in our life styles. The extent
of the interrelationship between social and economic
change means that many business organizations are
affected by changes in society.
A) The nature of family life is constantly changing.
B) Most forms of social change are related to
C) New economic policies adopted by the government
give priority to economic growth.
D) Successive governments have tried to solve the
problems resulting from economic change.
E) Population growth has a damaging effect on
23) . Man's continued existence depends on two basic
activities, agriculture and mining. In case of
agriculture, the soil can be managed so that year
after year it will produce good harvests....... Once
a mineral or fossil fuel has been removed
from the ground it has gone for ever.
A) This is why few people are now going in for
B) With mining the situation is very different.
C) In many countries industry has replaced
D) The consumption of raw materials has begun to
E) Climate is another factor influencing
24) . Some sociologists are concerned that America
is no longer "a melting pot", but "a salad bowl".
Unlike most earlier immigrants who are willing to
learn English and wanted to "melt" into American
life, many of today's immigrants do not see the
need...... ? How will all this affect America's
A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the
cities rather than on farms?
B) What was city life like for most immigrants?
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of
America's population by the year 2000?
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when
they arrived in America?
E) How far back can an American trace his roots? .
25) . In 1929 the stock market crashed and the Great
Depression of the 1930's began. ---------- and
almost immediately the nation's confidence in its
government and its
political leaders vanished.
A) Economic theory has never really explained how it
B) There was to be terrible suffering in both Europe
C) The prosperity that had seemed so permanent now
D) Steinbeck wrote The Grapes of Wrath during these
E) The road to recovery was a long and slow one