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1) . ____. People cannot live without food to eat and oxygen to breathe. When it is cold, they need heat, clothes, and places to live. The environment provides these needs. People use the land and oceans for food. The atmosphere, which is the air around the earth, contains oxygen. Energy for heat comes from petroleum, trees, or the sun.
A) Hundreds of years ago, the environment supplied food, heat and housing for everyone.
B) The Western world changed from an agricultural world to an industrial world,
C) Pollution is a harmful change that disturbs the balance of nature,
D) Human beings reed food, water, and air, which are all necessary for survival,
E) Industry is changing the environment quickly.

2) . People and industry need energy to do work. People cannot live without some kind of energy. Petroleum, which is a fossil fuel, is an important source. Oil and other fossil fuels come from deep in the earth. Millions of years ago, plants and animals lived on the earth. They died and changed their form. Oil comes from these plants and animals. The world is using
its limited supply of fossil fuel quickly. ____.
A) One alternate source is geothermal heat.
B) Nuclear energy is another source of energy.
C) Therefore, people must develop and use alternate sources in industry and at home.
D) All countries need to work together to develop alternate sources of energy,
E) The wind can make small amounts of energy.

3) . One type of solar collector is not very expensive. It is put on the roof of a building. It is usually put on the sunny side of the roof. _____. The unit has a flat or level surface. The surface is black because black collects more heat from the sun. Inside, there are pipes with water. The top is a piece of glass. The sun shines through the glass and air inside. It heats the water that is also inside. A pump, a machine to move the water, starts when the water is warm enough. Then hot water goes into a storage tank. This thank stores or keeps the hot water. Then there is hot water to use for washing clothes or taking baths and showers.
A) The sun gives out large amounts of energy.
B) Solar energy is safe.
C) The sun is most direct on this side, and the unit will collect more heat from the sun.
D) The roof must be high,
E) The world gets energy from petroleum, nuclear power plants, and the sun.

4) . Paper, which is expensive to buy, can also be recycled. Many peoplecollect old newspapers and take them to recycling centres where the paper is cut up. ______. Although trees, which are a source of paper, are a renewable resource, it is a good idea to recycle paper because trees grow slowly. People can conserve resources if they recycle materials, such as aluminium, glass and newspapers, but also it is easy.
A) Newspapers can be reused to make more newspaper.
B) Many resources can be recycled.
C) Water is added, and more paper is made for new newspaper and boxes.
D) We can reuse the newspapers.
E) It is not easy to reuse the papers.

5) . New technology increases crop production. However, agricultural experts need to think about the ways that people in different areas live. The local people need to help plan new agricultural projects for their areas. _______. With co-operation, working together, the countries of the earth
can solve the food production problems of the future.
A) Land with good soil for crops and animals is really only a small part of the total land area.,
B) New technology can increase the world's food production,
C) Careful use of the agricultural resources everyone's job.
D) People can find new natural resources to use.
E) There will be a serious increase in the need for food.

6) . Deserts do not all look alike because they differ in the formation of the land and the vegetation. Some deserts are flat while others have hills and mountains. Some are sand with almost no vegetation, and others are rocky with many plants on them. ___.
A) Deserts usually, however, do not have many plants that people can eat.
B) Most deserts get less than 12.7 cm. of rain each year.
C) Some rainfall is lost because water from heavy rainstorms doesn't go into the soil.
D) Deserts are both hot and cold,
E) Deserts usually look alike.

7) . Irrigation is used today not only in arid regions of the earth but also in areas where there is rainfall. It is used in wet regions, such as Western Europe, when there is not enough rain. In areas that have wet and dry seasons, such as Spain, irrigation is used in the dry season so that farmers can grow another crop. ___. This irrigated land produces much of the
world's food supply.
As population increases, the need for food increases. Irrigation will help
provide the answer to some of the food production problems. Arid lands
can be productive with water. Lands that receive rainfall can be more
productive with irrigation.
A) More irrigation will be necessary to meet the increasing need for food,
B) Without irrigation, there would be. no food to support life,
C) About 15 percent of the world's farmland is irrigated,
D) Farmers cannot control precipitation or atmospheric water,
E) Water for irrigation comes from two main sources.

8) . Marine biologists agree that with the present technology the oceans probably cannot solve the world's food shortage. Present methods of fishing are inefficient because it costs too much money to collect the fish. Also, fishermen want to catch only certain kinds of fish that people like to eat. ___. With efficient fishing methods, experts estimate that they could supply a human's daily requirement of protein for one cent.
However, people would have to change some of their ideas about food.
A) Biologists have suggested one way to increase fish production by at least ten Times,
B) Fish biologists predict that food production from the ocean could double in the 1990s with present technology.
C) Fishermen do not always follow the agreements that their countries make, '
D) Marine biologists can cause artificial up welling.
E) At the present, marine biologists are trying to extract a protein concentrate from fish and fish meal.

9) . Why do companies spend a lot of money on advertising? ____. Therefore, they try to persuade people to buy their products by advertising, which is part of the competition for customers. Second, companies, especially large international businesses, also want a good reputation. They need their customers' repeated business as well as their respect.
A) Companies want people to notice and pay attention to their advertising,
B) Companies use ads to tell people about their products or services,
C) There are ads for other things besides products and services.
D) Advertising is big business.
E) First each company wants to sell its goods and services to make as much profit as possible.

10) . Advertising is big business. Ad companies buy Time on radio and TV to sell their products or services. _____. Most of the cost of magazines and newspapers is also paid for by advertising. The advertising industry employs actors, musicians, artists, writers, photographers, and many other kinds of workers.
A) Large companies repeat their ads many Times.
B) Companies spend only a little money on advertising.
C) This money supports the TV and radio stations,
D) Some ads use both factual and emotional appeals to customers.
E) A picture of a famous person is often used to attract attention.

11) . Most fish live near the surface of the ocean. They live in the photic layer of water where the sunlight reaches. Its average depth is 50 meters, and its average food production per acre is about the same as on land. As on the land, some areas produce much more than others. ___. Up welling occurs when the deep layers of water that contain rich nutrients for the fish
to eat mix with the photic layer where the fish live. Up welling occurs off the coast of Peru in South America and near the coasts of South and Southwest Africa. These are some of the richest fishing areas in the world.
A) Large numbers of fish live in areas where natural up welling occurs.
B) People have been fishing for thousands of years.
C) Because of its high protein value, fish could help solve the world's food shortage.
D) Marine biologists can cause artificial up welling.
E) The ocean does not produce food.

12) . Corporations are another kind of business. They are owned by a group of people. These people all own scares, or parts of the business. Then these people become shareholders of the corporation. Each shareholder gets part of the profit in a dividend. _____, but managers run the corporation from day to day and make most of the corporate decisions. These corporations usually have a president and several vice-presidents. Some corporations are small, and others are very large, such as Volkswagen, IBM, and General Motors.
A) A corporation is owned by many people.
B) Shareholders make some of the decisions
C) A successful business makes a profit
D) The management organization of most corporations has three main departments,
E) The finance department keeps records of the company's money

13) . Other experts are developing new land for agriculture in deserts. In fact, there is a lot of research now in arid land management. Since one-third of the earth is dry, this research will open more land for agriculture. Water management is one part of arid land studies. Some agricultural experts are developing new methods of irrigation to bring water to crops. ____. Food resources from the ocean will become more and more useful, but experts need to develop new technology to take food from the ocean.
A) However, agricultural experts need to think about the ways that people in different areas live,
B) Others are searching for ways to change salty sea water into fresh water for : agricultural use.
C) With co-operation, the countries of the earth can solve the food production problems of the future.
D) The local people need to help plan new agricultural projects for their areas,
E) Careful use of the agricultural resources is everyone's job.

14) . ___. Although they are often called underground rivers, these formations are not like surface rivers. The water accumulates in one area underground. An aquifer contains enough water so that it can be easily pumped out for use.
A) People have been using groundwater for many years.
B) They are not exactly sure because it is difficult to know how large the aquifer really is.
C) Aquifers contain a generous supply of water,
D) Aquifers are geologic formations that allow groundwater to accumulate and move through them,
E) The aquifer supplies water for an increasing population in the city

15) . Up until now, the computer has been used most often in business, where it was first used for accounting. This is still its most common use. The computer can do inventory for business. That is, it can list and remember the number of products that the business buys and sells. It can also calculate the average cost of each inventory item and the total value of the products in the store. It can tell the businessmen when they need to buy more. ___. It can count the number of hours that employees worked,calculate their salaries, and make the checks to pay them. Management uses it to prepare business reports and to make decisions. It can predict the future of the business so the management can use the information when it has to make important decisions.
A) The computer can also make the payroll for the employees.
B) Many banks use computers to process customers' checks and to keep records of their money.
C) Now, computers are smaller, cheaper, and more common,
D) Most universities in the United States use computers for registration,
E) One very important use of the computer is in word processing.

16) . Most drugs are poisons in one way or another. Almost all drugs are dangerous when people take too much of them. For example, aspirin, which kills pain, is usually beneficial. ___. Too many sleeping pills cause death too. When they are sick, people sometimes begin to take many drugs. They may take many different kinds of drugs, or they may take too much of one kind of drug. Both kinds of drug use are dangerous. Doctors and patients must be careful of the number of drugs that they use.
A) On the other hand, people sometimes die from overdoses of aspirin.
B) Drug abuse is a serious problem.
C) The same drug may be beneficial or harmful.
D) Drugs are either natural or synthetic.
E) Doctors and patients must be careful with drugs.

17) . These small computers were made possible with the development of microcircuits and silicon chips. These are used in the microprocessor, which is the basic component of the personal computer. It contains the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and the main memory. The memory, measured in thousands of characters called bytes, is usually quite small in
these computers. Most computers for home use have 4 - 64 K bytes of memory. Personal computers for office use may have up to 256 K of main memory. Additional storage comes in two forms: cartridges or disks. ___. Because the main memory varies so much, a home computer that is designed mainly for games will not be suitable for business or professional use. It does not have enough memory space for programs that would perform effectively in an office.
A) There are two important reasons for the increasing popularity of personal computers.
B) Personal computers in home are used for teaching English,
C) Personal computers are now a necessity in most businesses,
D) Ready made programs for home or business also come on cartridges or disks,
E) Personal computers are being used more in business.

18) . Many large companies employ both industrial doctors and safety engineers to protect workers from accidents and illness on the job. They do this in three ways. First, doctors study the workers and their diseases. They know that certain groups of workers often have the same diseases. At the same Time, safety engineers study accidents and their causes. Second, doctors and safety engineers work together to change the machines or the job because they want to prevent more accidents or illnesses. ___. They teach the workers about safety on the job. Education is necessary for prevention.
A) Industrial physicians and safety engineers often prevent these problems,
B) Safety engineers design different ways to store and transport toxic chemicals.
C) They set standards for work in dangerous situations,
D) Some workers must wear protective clothing, like eye goggles, hard hats and safety shoes. .
E) Third, they educate workers about the dangers in their jobs.

19) . Skin and cornea transplants are very common and very successful. Surgeons have performed skin transplants for hundreds of years. In 600 BC, Hindu surgeons in India were probably the first surgeons to transplant skin. ___, The surgeon usually uses the patient's own skin. Skin from other people often does not help. Many blind patients can see again because of cornea transplants. The cornea is the clear, outer cover of the eye. Some kinds of blindness occur when the cornea becomes cloudy. A cornea transplant provides a new, clear cornea.
A) Today, doctors are able to replace sick organs with operations.
B) These organs are transplants
C) Today, people with serious burns often have skin transplants.
D) Organ transplants include kidney, heart, lung and liver,
E) Many blind patients can see again because of cornea transplants. .

20) . ____. They may have good effects or bad effects. Doctors and healers, have used them to cure disease and to kill pain for many hundreds of years. In the twentieth century, doctors have found many natural drugs. One of these is penicillin, which is an antibiotic. Natural drugs come from plants and animals. Scientists have studied the natural drugs and learned to make synthetic drugs in the laboratory similar to the natural drugs.
Therefore, today, most drugs are synthetic.
A) There are drugs that relax a tense person.
B) Drugs are chemicals that affect the human body.
C) Drugs are both beneficial and harmful.
D) Most drugs are poisons in one way or another.
E) People who often take too many drugs abuse drugs.

21) . Gases in mines are also very dangerous. Methane and carbon monoxide are the most dangerous. Too much methane may cause a violent explosion. Carbon monoxide is also a poisonous gas. Methane and carbon monoxide have no smell, so miners do not know when the gases are in the mine. If there is too much of a poisonous gas in the mine, the miners die. They sometimes take a small bird into the mine with them. ___. Then the miners know that they must leave the mine quickly. Because of the poisonous gases, it is important to bring fresh air into the mine.
A) If there is a lot of fresh air in the mine, there will be accidents with gases.
B) The bird will die from the gas first.
C) Carbon monoxide sometimes kills miners.
D) The air inside mines is always safe to breathe.
E) Mining is still a dangerous job.

22) . Tourism has grown so quickly during the last quarter of a century that ___. And it is only during the 1980's that the problems of poor or non- existent planning have been seen and tackled.
A) is the change in tradition life styles that alarms many anthropologists,
B) leave behind their rural homes and traditional life-style,
C) tourism as it developed in the 60's and 70's is self destructive
D) destroys the very things tourists come for.
E) it has become a problem in both industrialized and developing countries.

23) . There are 5 oceans in the world. The Arctic Ocean is the shallowest with an average depth of on 990 meters. ___. Another thing is that it was the last ocean to be explored.
A) This is the only ocean which is almost totally un surrounded by land,
B) But 20% of the world's oil pollution takes place in it.
C) And yet it covers the north Pole
D) Most people do not know where it is.
E) And lots of different kinds of fish live there.

24) . All parents have to solve the problems of freedom and discipline. The younger the child, the more readily the mother gives in to his demands to avoid disappointing him. ___. An example of this is the young child's need to play with mud, sand and water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this "messy" but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to go on to
the less physical pleasures of toys and books.
A) Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on the satisfactory completion of the one before,
B) She knows that if his energies are not given an outlet, her child's continuing development may be warped,
C) Early upbringing in the home is naturally affected both by the cultural pattern of the community and by the parents' capabilities and their aims,
D) Intelligent parents, however, realize that the particular setting of each family is unique, and there can be no rigid general rules,
E) Parents can ascertain what is normal in physical, mental and social development by referring to some of the many books based on scientific knowledge in these areas.

25) . There is no such thing as a memory in the sense of some thing that can be seen, touched or weighed. Memory is an abstraction referring to a set of skills rather than to an object. _____. There are a number of different ways in which a person may have a "good" memory.
A) Memory consists of at least two different processes
B) One measure of memory is recall.
C) Some material may be remembered in visual form.
D) There are several explanations of why we forget..
E) Neither is there a single standard for judging a good or poor memory.


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