1) . ____. People cannot live without food to eat
and oxygen to breathe. When it is cold, they need
heat, clothes, and places to live. The environment
provides these needs. People use the land and oceans
for food. The atmosphere, which is the air around
the earth, contains oxygen. Energy for heat comes
from petroleum, trees, or the sun.
A) Hundreds of years ago, the environment supplied
food, heat and housing for everyone.
B) The Western world changed from an agricultural
world to an industrial world,
C) Pollution is a harmful change that disturbs the
balance of nature,
D) Human beings reed food, water, and air, which are
all necessary for survival,
E) Industry is changing the environment quickly.
2) . People and industry need energy to do work.
People cannot live without some kind of energy.
Petroleum, which is a fossil fuel, is an important
source. Oil and other fossil fuels come from deep in
the earth. Millions of years ago, plants and animals
lived on the earth. They died and changed their
form. Oil comes from these plants and animals. The
world is using
its limited supply of fossil fuel quickly. ____.
A) One alternate source is geothermal heat.
B) Nuclear energy is another source of energy.
C) Therefore, people must develop and use alternate
sources in industry and at home.
D) All countries need to work together to develop
alternate sources of energy,
E) The wind can make small amounts of energy.
3) . One type of solar collector is not very
expensive. It is put on the roof of a building. It
is usually put on the sunny side of the roof. _____.
The unit has a flat or level surface. The surface is
black because black collects more heat from the sun.
Inside, there are pipes with water. The top is a
piece of glass. The sun shines through the glass and
air inside. It heats the water that is also inside.
A pump, a machine to move the water, starts when the
water is warm enough. Then hot water goes into a
storage tank. This thank stores or keeps the hot
water. Then there is hot water to use for washing
clothes or taking baths and showers.
A) The sun gives out large amounts of energy.
B) Solar energy is safe.
C) The sun is most direct on this side, and the unit
will collect more heat from the sun.
D) The roof must be high,
E) The world gets energy from petroleum, nuclear
power plants, and the sun.
4) . Paper, which is expensive to buy, can also be
recycled. Many peoplecollect old newspapers and take
them to recycling centres where the paper is cut up.
______. Although trees, which are a source of paper,
are a renewable resource, it is a good idea to
recycle paper because trees grow slowly. People can
conserve resources if they recycle materials, such
as aluminium, glass and newspapers, but also it is
A) Newspapers can be reused to make more newspaper.
B) Many resources can be recycled.
C) Water is added, and more paper is made for new
newspaper and boxes.
D) We can reuse the newspapers.
E) It is not easy to reuse the papers.
5) . New technology increases crop production.
However, agricultural experts need to think about
the ways that people in different areas live. The
local people need to help plan new agricultural
projects for their areas. _______. With
co-operation, working together, the countries of the
can solve the food production problems of the
A) Land with good soil for crops and animals is
really only a small part of the total land area.,
B) New technology can increase the world's food
C) Careful use of the agricultural resources
D) People can find new natural resources to use.
E) There will be a serious increase in the need for
6) . Deserts do not all look alike because they
differ in the formation of the land and the
vegetation. Some deserts are flat while others have
hills and mountains. Some are sand with almost no
vegetation, and others are rocky with many plants on
A) Deserts usually, however, do not have many plants
that people can eat.
B) Most deserts get less than 12.7 cm. of rain each
C) Some rainfall is lost because water from heavy
rainstorms doesn't go into the soil.
D) Deserts are both hot and cold,
E) Deserts usually look alike.
7) . Irrigation is used today not only in arid
regions of the earth but also in areas where there
is rainfall. It is used in wet regions, such as
Western Europe, when there is not enough rain. In
areas that have wet and dry seasons, such as Spain,
irrigation is used in the dry season so that farmers
can grow another crop. ___. This irrigated land
produces much of the
world's food supply.
As population increases, the need for food
increases. Irrigation will help
provide the answer to some of the food production
problems. Arid lands
can be productive with water. Lands that receive
rainfall can be more
productive with irrigation.
A) More irrigation will be necessary to meet the
increasing need for food,
B) Without irrigation, there would be. no food to
C) About 15 percent of the world's farmland is
D) Farmers cannot control precipitation or
E) Water for irrigation comes from two main sources.
8) . Marine biologists agree that with the present
technology the oceans probably cannot solve the
world's food shortage. Present methods of fishing
are inefficient because it costs too much money to
collect the fish. Also, fishermen want to catch only
certain kinds of fish that people like to eat. ___.
With efficient fishing methods, experts estimate
that they could supply a human's daily requirement
of protein for one cent.
However, people would have to change some of their
ideas about food.
A) Biologists have suggested one way to increase
fish production by at least ten Times,
B) Fish biologists predict that food production from
the ocean could double in the 1990s with present
C) Fishermen do not always follow the agreements
that their countries make, '
D) Marine biologists can cause artificial up
E) At the present, marine biologists are trying to
extract a protein concentrate from fish and fish
9) . Why do companies spend a lot of money on
advertising? ____. Therefore, they try to persuade
people to buy their products by advertising, which
is part of the competition for customers. Second,
companies, especially large international
businesses, also want a good reputation. They need
their customers' repeated business as well as their
A) Companies want people to notice and pay attention
to their advertising,
B) Companies use ads to tell people about their
products or services,
C) There are ads for other things besides products
D) Advertising is big business.
E) First each company wants to sell its goods and
services to make as much profit as possible.
10) . Advertising is big business. Ad companies buy
Time on radio and TV to sell their products or
services. _____. Most of the cost of magazines and
newspapers is also paid for by advertising. The
advertising industry employs actors, musicians,
artists, writers, photographers, and many other
kinds of workers.
A) Large companies repeat their ads many Times.
B) Companies spend only a little money on
C) This money supports the TV and radio stations,
D) Some ads use both factual and emotional appeals
E) A picture of a famous person is often used to
11) . Most fish live near the surface of the ocean.
They live in the photic layer of water where the
sunlight reaches. Its average depth is 50 meters,
and its average food production per acre is about
the same as on land. As on the land, some areas
produce much more than others. ___. Up welling
occurs when the deep layers of water that contain
rich nutrients for the fish
to eat mix with the photic layer where the fish
live. Up welling occurs off the coast of Peru in
South America and near the coasts of South and
Southwest Africa. These are some of the richest
fishing areas in the world.
A) Large numbers of fish live in areas where natural
up welling occurs.
B) People have been fishing for thousands of years.
C) Because of its high protein value, fish could
help solve the world's food shortage.
D) Marine biologists can cause artificial up
E) The ocean does not produce food.
12) . Corporations are another kind of business.
They are owned by a group of people. These people
all own scares, or parts of the business. Then these
people become shareholders of the corporation. Each
shareholder gets part of the profit in a dividend.
_____, but managers run the corporation from day to
day and make most of the corporate decisions. These
corporations usually have a president and several
vice-presidents. Some corporations are small, and
others are very large, such as Volkswagen, IBM, and
A) A corporation is owned by many people.
B) Shareholders make some of the decisions
C) A successful business makes a profit
D) The management organization of most corporations
has three main departments,
E) The finance department keeps records of the
13) . Other experts are developing new land for
agriculture in deserts. In fact, there is a lot of
research now in arid land management. Since
one-third of the earth is dry, this research will
open more land for agriculture. Water management is
one part of arid land studies. Some agricultural
experts are developing new methods of irrigation to
bring water to crops. ____. Food resources from the
ocean will become more and more useful, but experts
need to develop new technology to take food from the
A) However, agricultural experts need to think about
the ways that people in different areas live,
B) Others are searching for ways to change salty sea
water into fresh water for : agricultural use.
C) With co-operation, the countries of the earth can
solve the food production problems of the future.
D) The local people need to help plan new
agricultural projects for their areas,
E) Careful use of the agricultural resources is
14) . ___. Although they are often called
underground rivers, these formations are not like
surface rivers. The water accumulates in one area
underground. An aquifer contains enough water so
that it can be easily pumped out for use.
A) People have been using groundwater for many
B) They are not exactly sure because it is difficult
to know how large the aquifer really is.
C) Aquifers contain a generous supply of water,
D) Aquifers are geologic formations that allow
groundwater to accumulate and move through them,
E) The aquifer supplies water for an increasing
population in the city
15) . Up until now, the computer has been used most
often in business, where it was first used for
accounting. This is still its most common use. The
computer can do inventory for business. That is, it
can list and remember the number of products that
the business buys and sells. It can also calculate
the average cost of each inventory item and the
total value of the products in the store. It can
tell the businessmen when they need to buy more.
___. It can count the number of hours that employees
worked,calculate their salaries, and make the checks
to pay them. Management uses it to prepare business
reports and to make decisions. It can predict the
future of the business so the management can use the
information when it has to make important decisions.
A) The computer can also make the payroll for the
B) Many banks use computers to process customers'
checks and to keep records of their money.
C) Now, computers are smaller, cheaper, and more
D) Most universities in the United States use
computers for registration,
E) One very important use of the computer is in word
16) . Most drugs are poisons in one way or another.
Almost all drugs are dangerous when people take too
much of them. For example, aspirin, which kills
pain, is usually beneficial. ___. Too many sleeping
pills cause death too. When they are sick, people
sometimes begin to take many drugs. They may take
many different kinds of drugs, or they may take too
much of one kind of drug. Both kinds of drug use are
dangerous. Doctors and patients must be careful of
the number of drugs that they use.
A) On the other hand, people sometimes die from
overdoses of aspirin.
B) Drug abuse is a serious problem.
C) The same drug may be beneficial or harmful.
D) Drugs are either natural or synthetic.
E) Doctors and patients must be careful with drugs.
17) . These small computers were made possible with
the development of microcircuits and silicon chips.
These are used in the microprocessor, which is the
basic component of the personal computer. It
contains the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and the
main memory. The memory, measured in thousands of
characters called bytes, is usually quite small in
these computers. Most computers for home use have 4
- 64 K bytes of memory. Personal computers for
office use may have up to 256 K of main memory.
Additional storage comes in two forms: cartridges or
disks. ___. Because the main memory varies so much,
a home computer that is designed mainly for games
will not be suitable for business or professional
use. It does not have enough memory space for
programs that would perform effectively in an
A) There are two important reasons for the
increasing popularity of personal computers.
B) Personal computers in home are used for teaching
C) Personal computers are now a necessity in most
D) Ready made programs for home or business also
come on cartridges or disks,
E) Personal computers are being used more in
18) . Many large companies employ both industrial
doctors and safety engineers to protect workers from
accidents and illness on the job. They do this in
three ways. First, doctors study the workers and
their diseases. They know that certain groups of
workers often have the same diseases. At the same
Time, safety engineers study accidents and their
causes. Second, doctors and safety engineers work
together to change the machines or the job because
they want to prevent more accidents or illnesses.
___. They teach the workers about safety on the job.
Education is necessary for prevention.
A) Industrial physicians and safety engineers often
prevent these problems,
B) Safety engineers design different ways to store
and transport toxic chemicals.
C) They set standards for work in dangerous
D) Some workers must wear protective clothing, like
eye goggles, hard hats and safety shoes. .
E) Third, they educate workers about the dangers in
19) . Skin and cornea transplants are very common
and very successful. Surgeons have performed skin
transplants for hundreds of years. In 600 BC, Hindu
surgeons in India were probably the first surgeons
to transplant skin. ___, The surgeon usually uses
the patient's own skin. Skin from other people often
does not help. Many blind patients can see again
because of cornea transplants. The cornea is the
clear, outer cover of the eye. Some kinds of
blindness occur when the cornea becomes cloudy. A
cornea transplant provides a new, clear cornea.
A) Today, doctors are able to replace sick organs
B) These organs are transplants
C) Today, people with serious burns often have skin
D) Organ transplants include kidney, heart, lung and
E) Many blind patients can see again because of
cornea transplants. .
20) . ____. They may have good effects or bad
effects. Doctors and healers, have used them to cure
disease and to kill pain for many hundreds of years.
In the twentieth century, doctors have found many
natural drugs. One of these is penicillin, which is
an antibiotic. Natural drugs come from plants and
animals. Scientists have studied the natural drugs
and learned to make synthetic drugs in the
laboratory similar to the natural drugs.
Therefore, today, most drugs are synthetic.
A) There are drugs that relax a tense person.
B) Drugs are chemicals that affect the human body.
C) Drugs are both beneficial and harmful.
D) Most drugs are poisons in one way or another.
E) People who often take too many drugs abuse drugs.
21) . Gases in mines are also very dangerous.
Methane and carbon monoxide are the most dangerous.
Too much methane may cause a violent explosion.
Carbon monoxide is also a poisonous gas. Methane and
carbon monoxide have no smell, so miners do not know
when the gases are in the mine. If there is too much
of a poisonous gas in the mine, the miners die. They
sometimes take a small bird into the mine with them.
___. Then the miners know that they must leave the
mine quickly. Because of the poisonous gases, it is
important to bring fresh air into the mine.
A) If there is a lot of fresh air in the mine, there
will be accidents with gases.
B) The bird will die from the gas first.
C) Carbon monoxide sometimes kills miners.
D) The air inside mines is always safe to breathe.
E) Mining is still a dangerous job.
22) . Tourism has grown so quickly during the last
quarter of a century that ___. And it is only during
the 1980's that the problems of poor or non-
existent planning have been seen and tackled.
A) is the change in tradition life styles that
alarms many anthropologists,
B) leave behind their rural homes and traditional
C) tourism as it developed in the 60's and 70's is
D) destroys the very things tourists come for.
E) it has become a problem in both industrialized
and developing countries.
23) . There are 5 oceans in the world. The Arctic
Ocean is the shallowest with an average depth of on
990 meters. ___. Another thing is that it was the
last ocean to be explored.
A) This is the only ocean which is almost totally un
surrounded by land,
B) But 20% of the world's oil pollution takes place
C) And yet it covers the north Pole
D) Most people do not know where it is.
E) And lots of different kinds of fish live there.
24) . All parents have to solve the problems of
freedom and discipline. The younger the child, the
more readily the mother gives in to his demands to
avoid disappointing him. ___. An example of this is
the young child's need to play with mud, sand and
water. A child must be allowed to enjoy this "messy"
but tactile stage of discovery before he is ready to
go on to
the less physical pleasures of toys and books.
A) Similarly, throughout life, each stage depends on
the satisfactory completion of the one before,
B) She knows that if his energies are not given an
outlet, her child's continuing development may be
C) Early upbringing in the home is naturally
affected both by the cultural pattern of the
community and by the parents' capabilities and their
D) Intelligent parents, however, realize that the
particular setting of each family is unique, and
there can be no rigid general rules,
E) Parents can ascertain what is normal in physical,
mental and social development by referring to some
of the many books based on scientific knowledge in
25) . There is no such thing as a memory in the
sense of some thing that can be seen, touched or
weighed. Memory is an abstraction referring to a set
of skills rather than to an object. _____. There are
a number of different ways in which a person may
have a "good" memory.
A) Memory consists of at least two different
B) One measure of memory is recall.
C) Some material may be remembered in visual form.
D) There are several explanations of why we forget..
E) Neither is there a single standard for judging a
good or poor memory.