1) . Jose is a geologist speleologist, or caver.
_____. Sometimes she crawls on her back through
tight passages with rock pressing into her body.
Other times she rappels, or dangles on the end of a
secured rope, down the wall of a deep cave.
A) She has been living in a small Western town for
B) Her job is to add to our knowledge about how the
earth is formed.
C) Her mother always worked a lot to finance her
D) Hose received many prizes during her education.
E) Many children want to be like her.
2) . ______ All organizations and people create and
accumulate materials that can add to the historical
record. It is often that seemingly unimportant box
of letters that opens up a whole new area of
A) World Health Organization started a large scale
project on the history of polio.
B) Historical archives are important, however, most
of us underestimate their significance in daily
C) Do not underestimate the importance of your
papers or the records of your club.
D) Historians and librarians are usually great
collectors of ancient documents of our monetary
E) Nobody knows what the role of our recent
political history in our near future.
3) . The most unique feature of our media centre is
the television studio. _____. This studio is used
projects which the average student is involved in
once a year.
A) Television studios are mostly abused by the
students having deviant tendencies.
B) These centres are merely available for certain
ages of students.
C) Students can leave nothing but their term
projects on the shelves there.
D) There students can create and film and television
shows that can then be viewed on any or all of our
many television sets.
E) The expenses of these centres are met by a
special fund established for this purpose only.
4) Another transplant problem is the danger of
infection. When surgeons operate, bacteria enter the
body and cause infection. The third problem is
rejection. The human body naturally rejects, or does
not accept, tissue from another body. The blood
produces antibodies, which kill the new tissue. ___.
Doctors are developing drugs that will stop
rejection and increase the number of successful
A) Dr. Christian Barnard performed the first heart
transplant in 1967 in South Africa,
B) A number of patients have lived for more than
four years after successful surgery,
C) Rejection of the new tissue or organ is the major
reason for the failure of transplant operations.
D) Transplant surgery has helped many people,
E) There are problems with transplant surgery.
5) Most nurses continue their education. They learn
about new medicines, new machines, and new
treatments. ___. For example, some nurses specialize
in surgery, emergency care, or paediatrics. In
surgery, nurses assist doctors during operations. In
emergency rooms, nurses treat people with injuries
from accidents. In paediatrics, they care for sick
A) Practical nurses are another kind of nurse.
B) There are two kinds of nurses.
C) Most nurses who work in hospitals are
D) Some nurses continue their education to become
E) Nurses are a necessary part of health care.
6) Doctors in India and China are famous for their
knowledge of medicinal plants, but healers in many
countries all over the world use natural medicines.
___. For example, aloe Vera is good for the skin. It
helps minor burns, such as sunburn. Camomile and
sage teas are good for stomach problems. Mint or
ginger teas often relax people.
A) There is new interest in natural medicine all
over the world.
B) Many modern drugs come from a few of the
thousands of plants with medicinal uses,
C) The ethno botanists bring the plants back to the
laboratory where other scientists extract and study
the drugs in them,
D) Scientists have studied medicinal plants and used
the knowledge to make synthetic drugs in the
E) Later, scientists extracted quinine, which is a
treatment for malaria, from the cinchona bark.
7) People have been fishing for thousands of years.
They have not only fished but they have also
cultivated fish _______ . Carp, which is a kind of
fish, has been grown in ponds for thousands of years
in China and India. Other species of fish were
cultivated in Egypt before 1400 BC. The French have
grown oysters for centuries, and today, the Japanese
cultivate two kinds of oysters: oysters for food and
oysters for pearls. A Japanese was the first to grow
cultured pearls in 1893.
A) Up welling occurs when the deep layers of water
that contain rich nutrients for the fish to eat mix
with the photic layer where the fish live.
B) Aquaculture, or fish farming, is a new
C) Fish farming is often called aquaculture.
D) Also, fishermen want to catch only certain kinds
of fish that people like to eat.
E) Biologists have suggested one way to increase
fish production by at least ten Times.
8) Business is part of the economy of every country.
Free enterprise is the basis of business and the
economy of many countries where everyone has the
opportunity to start a business. The government may
own some of the industries, such as the post office
or the steel industry. Yet, in a free enterprise
economy, most of the businesses and industries
belong to private citizens or private organizations.
The purpose of all business in a free enterprise
system is to make money ______. Profit is the income
for the owner of the business. After the owner pays
the expenses and costs, he or she keeps the rest of
the money, the profit. Some of the profit is usually
used to improve the business. Therefore, the goal of
business management is to be efficient. Managers try
to keep the costs of production down. They try to
spend less money,
Time, and energy. Efficiency reduces costs and,
therefore, prices. It also increases profits.
A) Many businesses are owned by one person.
B) The owner makes the business a success or a
C) Several people can own a business together
D) People cannot start business in a free enterprise
E) In fact, the objective is to earn as much profit
9) Most deserts get less than 5 inches (12.7 cm) of
rain each year. The rains are not regular, and there
is no rain at all in some years. ___. Because the
ground is often hot when it rains some of the rain
turns into vapour and returns to the air
immediately. Some rainfall is lost because water
from heavy rainstorms does not go into the soil. It
runs off into wades or
A) Some of the rainwater is always lost by
B) Countries with large deserts need to develop and
C) Farmers can grow enough cotton to sell.
D) Deserts usually, however, do not have many plants
that people can eat.
E) The temperature is lowered, and the amount of
water in the air is increased.
10) The water on the earth is recycled constantly in
a process known as the hydrologic cycle. First, the
water in the oceans evaporates. It changes into
vapour and forms clouds in the sky. ___. When the
water reaches the earth's surface, it runs off into
streams, rivers, lakes, and at last, into the
oceans, where the cycle begins again. The water on
the surface of the earth and in the atmosphere is
known as the hydrosphere. Not all precipitation goes
into river.. Some of it seeps into the ground by a
process called infiltration. This water collects
under the earth's surface and is groundwater.
A) 95 percent of the earth's water is in the oceans.
B) Water accumulates in clouds and returns to the
surface of the earth in some form of precipitation,
which can be either rain, snow, or ice.
C) Consequently, groundwater provides 95 percent of
the available fresh water on the earth.
D) Until recently, groundwater was clean,
E) People have been using groundwater for many
11) Scientists are looking for cheaper ways to use
solar energy to heat air and water. Many buildings
are using solar energy to heat their water now. ___.
Although these units are still very expensive, more
and more people are buying solar hot water heaters.
Universities and colleges give solar energy courses
where students learn to build their own solar
collectors. There are also many books that explain
the construction of solar collectors. In the future,
there will be more and more solar collectors,
especially in the sunny desert areas of the world.
A) Scientists want to use solar energy to take salt
out of sea water.
B) There are several advantages to solar energy.
C) The sun releases large amounts of energy.
D) Solar units on the roofs of buildings collect the
energy and use it to heat water,
E) If scientists find better and cheaper ways to
collect and use energy, people will become
12) Cars use large amounts of gasoline. Good drivers
drive carefully and save gasoline. ____.First, drive
less than 55 mph. At 55 mph, a car uses 20 percent
less fuel than at 70 mph. Do not stop and start the
car suddenly. Do not stop and leave the engine
running for more than a minute. Turn off the engine
and start it again. Also tune up the car often.
Check the oil in the engine and clean the spark
plugs. Keep the right amount of air in the tires.
Make the car as light as possible. Do not carry
heavy things in the car if you do not have to. A
heavy car uses more gasoline than a light one.
Finally, drive a small car.
A) A smaller car uses less gasoline,
B) A small engine usually needs less fuel.
C) It is easy to drive a small car.
D) There are several ways to conserve gas in cars.
E) If you drive carefully, you can conserve gasoline
while you drive.
13) . ________ . Passengers do not have to wait days
or weeks to see if there are seats on the aero
planes because the computer can give them the
A) Computers are used more and more everyday.
B) The computer can work only in accounting,
C) In the travel industry, computers are widely used
to make reservations for airlines and hotels.
D) Computer games are popular in the world,
E) Chemical companies often use computers to analyze
their processes and check their products.
14) . There are many kidney transplant operations,
and they are often successful. The donor kidney may
come from someone in the patient's family. ___. When
the donor is not from the patient's family, the body
more often does not accept the kidney, and the rate
of success in only 50 percent.
A) A donor is a person who gives an organ for an
B) Donor organs may come from people who have just
died, C) When the donor comes from the patient's own
family, there is an 80 percent chance of success.
D) Machines cause problems for transplant
E) Transplants save people's lives.
15) . Water for crops comes from five sources:
precipitation, atmospheric water other than
precipitation, floodwater, groundwater, and
irrigation. Precipitation :s rain and snow.
Atmospheric water includes fog, clouds, and humidity
in the air. Floodwater comes from a river when the
water runs over the sides of the river. ___.
Although they cannot always control floodwaters,
engineers build dams across rivers to collect
precipitation and floodwater. Behind the dams there
are reservoirs, which are artificial lakes. They
keep the water until it is needed for irrigation.
A) Farmers cannot control precipitation or
B) The water is usually brought to the surface by a
C) Water for irrigation comes from two main sources,
D) People found ways to bring water to their crops
E) Irrigation is used today not only in arid regions
but also in areas where there is rainfall.
16) . One very important use of the computer is in
word processing. A word processor is a computer that
can type letters, papers, or books. It makes the
secretary, student, or writer's jobs easier, faster,
and more efficient. The word processor can type many
copies of the same letter and make
changes in each copy. If the university wants to
send a letter to all its students, the word
processor can type the letters and envelopes. If
students need to write research papers, they can
type them on the word processor. Then it is easy to
make corrections or changes. ___.
A) People who work with computers sometimes make
mistakes, but computers do not.
B) Computers process data in different ways,
C) When the paper is finished, the word processor
can type many copies of the paper.
D) There are many advantages of computers,
E) There are many computer languages, such as Basic,
Cobol and Fortran.
17) . Scientists are looking for other ways to use
solar energy. For instance, they want to use solar
energy to take the salt out of sea water. ___.
Scientists want to supply this fresh water from the
ocean. Researchers in Mexico and Abu Dhabi are doing
important work on desalination.
A) Scientists are looking for cheaper ways to use
solar energy to heat air and water.
B) People who live in dry, desert areas near oceans
need fresh water,
C) There are several advantages to solar energy,
D) More and more people are buying solar hot water
E) In the future, there will be more and more solar
collectors, especially in the sunny desert areas of
18) . Dr. Christian Barnard performed the first
heart transplant in 1967 in South Africa..___. A
number of patients have lived for more than four
years after successful surgery.
A) Kidney and heart transplants are successful
because of heart and lung machines.
B) Since then, there have been many successful
C) Rejection of the new tissue or organ is the major
reason for the failure of transplant operations,
D) Organ transplants are not easy,
E) There will never be an artificial heart.
19) . One alternate source is geothermal heat, which
also comes from deep inside the earth. The inside of
the earth is very hot. This heat makes the
underground water hot. ___. Steam, which is hot
water vapor in the air, sometimes comes to the
surface. One example of this is the Old Faithful
geyser in Yellowstone National Park in the United
A) Iceland, Spain, the U.S., and other countries are
using geothermal heat now.
B) People use the hot water to heat or cool
C) In some places of the earth, this hot water is
near the surface.
D) Hot water produces electricity.
E) People take the hot water or steam from inside
20) . Groundwater is important for three reasons.
First, 95 percent of the earth's water is in the
oceans. It is salty and useless for plants, animals,
or humans. ___.Surface water is .05 percent of the
earth's water while underground water is 4 percent
of the earth's water. Consequently, groundwater
provides 95 percent of the available fresh water on
Second, groundwater is important not only because of
the size of the supply, but also because of its
dependability. It is always available since it does
not depend on seasonal rain or snow. A third reason
is that, until recently, groundwater was clean. It
was not necessary to purify it before people drank
it. However, for many years, people have been
burying garbage and poisonous wastes underground.
These poisons have polluted the groundwater in many
places and made it unsafe for human
use unless it is purified first.
A) The water on the surface of the earth and in the
atmosphere is known as the hydrosphere,
B) Fresh water, which people can use for drinking or
for agriculture, is either on the earth's surface in
lakes and rivers or underground,
C) The water collects under the earth's surface is
D) The water on the earth is recycled constantly,
E) The water in the oceans evaporates.
21) . Fishermen harvest about 70 million tons of
seafood every year. Over half of the seafood
harvested is used to make fish meal, which is a food
for chickens and other animals. Humans then eat the
chicken and beef. ___. Because of its high protein
value, fish could help solve the world's food
A) Most fish live near the surface of the ocean.
B) They live in the photic layer of water,
C) Large numbers of fish live in areas where natural
up welling occurs.
D) It is more efficient for people to eat the fish
itself than to eat the animals that ate the fish
E) People like fish more than meat.
22) . As much as 36 percent of the world's land is
desert, and about 15 percent of the world's
population lives there. Countries with large deserts
need to develop and manage them. ___. Agricultural
scientists are searching for ways to improve crops.
For instance, cotton is a major cash crop in many
arid regions. Farmers can grow enough cotton to
sell. New cotton
plants, which grow faster and use less water and
fewer chemicals, are being developed. Bio energy
research is looking for new crops that arid land
farmers can use for cash crops. Plants, such as the
jojoba, euphorbia, and the guayule, may be valuable
crops in the future. Desert agriculturalists are
also developing plants called halophytes, which grow
in salty water.
A) Much research is being done in arid land
management because arid land farming is becoming
B) Research is being done on growing plants in
C) In Abu Dhabi, plastic greenhouses are producing
fresh vegetables is only sand and water.
D) Good land management is necessary in desert
E) Cotton is a cash crop in many desert lands.
23) . The Green Revolution, however, was not a total
success. There were several problems. The new plants
not only increased grain production but also
increased the farmers' dependence on new technology.
The new seeds needed more water, fertilizer, and
pesticides than the old kinds of seeds. With the
need for more water, farmers had to build irrigation
systems to provide dependable sources of water or
depend on rainfall. ___. Without new irrigation
systems, the new crops depended only on natural
rainfall. The amount of rainfall is not always
dependable. For instance, several years of drought
in parts of Asia, the Soviet Union, and Africa
caused a large decrease in the world's food supply.
That decrease was the first one in twenty years.
A) Another problem for the new agriculture has been
the increased Cost of petroleum.
B) The amount of rainfall is very important,
C) Farmers needed expensive machines to plant and
harvest the increased production from the new
D) Modern technology, new machines, and information
were needed to build these new systems,
E) Better roads and transportation were needed to
move the grain from the fields to the mills and from
the mills to the markets.
24) . The computer can process data quickly and
accurately. At the same Time, it can store vast
amounts of data, and it can perform long, tiring
jobs. All these advantages have made the computer
part of life. Computers will make life easier since
they can help in the office, at school, and at home.
___.Therefore, it is good to begin to understand
these new machines and what they do.
A) The most important advantage of the computer is
that it can store, great amounts of data.
B) The computer doesn't get tired or bored,
C) A computer program must be written in a language
that the computer can understand.
D) People who write computer programs are called
E) Soon they will be part of everyone's life.
25) . Many different kinds of scientists, such as
physicians, biologists, and anthropologists, are
studying medicinal plants. One kind of scientist who
specializes in collecting medicinal plants is the
ethno botanist. Ethno botanists study groups of
people and their medicines. They travel to many
places, such as South America and Africa, where
there are thousands of medicinal plants. They live
with the native people and learn
how the people use these plants. ___. These studies
doctors find new cures for many diseases.
A) Scientists have studied medicinal plants and used
the knowledge to make synthetic drugs.
B) Many of these drugs are effective in the
treatment of cancer,
C) Then they bring the plants back to the laboratory
where other scientists extract and study the drugs
D) Many doctors are famous for their knowledge of
E) In 1803, Jackrick Serturner took morphine from
the opium poppy.