1) . ........ Composers such as Schubert, Schumann
Listz, and Belioz sought a new freedom in musical
expression. Form became less important than content;
and that content often had literary connections.
A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all the
English Romantic poets.
B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most typical
representative composers of the romantic era.
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the
year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in
D) In fact, the Romantic movement itself did not
last very long.
E) Among the Romantic composers. Brahms has
generally been the most popular.
2) . Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the
brain isn't found out, but a protein molecule is
thought to be involved ....... On the theory that
the protein causes the disorder by travelling from
other tissues to the brain, researchers may now seek
to devise drugs that would block the protein and
stop it getting there.
A) If this is confirmed, it may lead to a
break-through in the treatment of the disease.
B) In fact it hardly seems worthwhile to carry out
further research into the Alzheimer disease.
C) Much research has already been carried out to
discover the causes of the disease.
D) Once the molecule had been isolated it was
possible to cure the condition.
E) The Alzheimer disease is just one of the many
incurable illnesses that inflict people in the
3) . Underdeveloped countries are those in which
economic structure and development are held back.
The causes of the condition of underdevelopment are
complicated, but two opposing sets of theories
dominates discussion. ..... On the other hand there
are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment
directly to the distortions of economic structure
and the exploitation involved in the relations
between the developed and the underdeveloped
A) In other words, development and underdevelopment
are mutually interdependent.
B) This view implies that the state and process of
underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable.
C) On the one hand there are those theories that
attribute underdevelopment to the internal
characteristics of the underdeveloped countries
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for
their own underdevelopment.
E) However, no country in the world is completely
isolated from the current monetary policies.
4) . The aim of a novel varies with its type.
Anthony Trollope's statement has a fundamental
validity: "The object of a novel should be to
instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme,
some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as
some children's novels and social novels. ......
However, one can say that the goal of most novels is
to reveal and stimulate thought about aspects of
human behaviour both individually and in personal
A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular,
especially in the form of science fiction.
B) Therefore, a novel is a fictitious prose
narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words
C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as the
first notable English novelist.
D) At the other, some novels are meant simply as
entertainment, such as detective stories and much
E) At the same time, the reading public has
increased in numbers, especially among the educated.
5) . Since universities have existed there have been
arguments about what books should be taught to
students. ...... Others have maintained that such a
practice does not help students to distinguish
between the good and the bad. Instead, they have
suggested that students should be exposed to a wider
range of writing.
A) Some have claimed that students should be
introduced to the 'great' books of he world.
B) In fact, university authorities have always
concerned themselves with this problem.
C) This is not to say that all students should read
the same books.
D) The decision taken was that we limit ourselves to
the world classics.
E) The problem was heatedly debated right through
6) . In Britain today every household with a TV set
must, by law, pay for a license, which costs about
the same for a year as a trendy newspaper every day.
A few people, including those with non-colour TV pay
. Another important source is the selling
of its productions to other broadcasting stations.
A) The BBC enjoyed a monopoly until 1954.
B) Unlike the press, the BBC has rarely been accused
of being partial
C) The new payments are mainly compulsory
subscription to the BBC, which derives nearly all of
its funds from this source.
D) News programs and films still attract the largest
E) Since the 1970s most British households have had
TV sets able to receive channels.
6) . The Times newspaper has three weekly
supplements all published and sold separately. These
are The Time Literary Supplement, The Times
Education Supplement, and The Times Higher Education
. It is devoted almost completely to
book reviews and covers all kinds of new literature.
A) Obviously they influence the way people think to
a considerable extent
B) Glossy weekly magazines cater for special
C) Both of these appeal only to a restricted number
D) Of these, The Literary Supplement has the biggest
number of readers.
E) They make good use of academic contributors on
issues related to education and literature.
7) . Generally, the farther north one goes in
England, the more adequate are the roads for the
traffic they have to carry. ...... But the roads in
the south of England, apart from the motorways which
radiate from London, must be among the most
inadequate in Europe. Traffic there frequently moves
at walking pace.
A) It is advisable to use the metro in London, for
traffic jams make other forms of transport
B) Wales and Scotland, for instance, are
well-catered for with great lengths of nearly empty
dual carriage ways.
C) The noise of the traffic has, in fact, increased
very little recent years.
D) Similarly, in London, traffic hardly moves faster
now than it did a century ago when vehicles were
E) Several new schemes are now being considered to
alleviate this condition.
8) . The habit of thinking about the past as divided
into water-tight periods is particularly dangerous
when it comes to economic and social history.
Actually 'periods' usually have, as their names
imply, a purely political connotation _ 'the Tudor
age' or "the age of Louis XIV.
. Rather absorbed
in its own daily task, it flows on like an
underground river, Only occasionally making
eruption into the upper daylight of politics.
A) This system, which originated in late medieval
times, only blossomed in modern times.
B) The characteristics of one age thus invariably
overlap into the next.
C) But economic and social life takes little heed of
the deaths of kings or the accession of new
D) The great innovators of social reform have all
too often remained unacknowledged.
E) The approach of the modern historian has been to
play down this all-important trend.
9) . A teacher's expectation of a child's ability
can often determine the child's actual performance
at school. If a group of children is divided into
two groups of equal aptitude but their teachers are
told that the children in group 1 have high IQs and"
are expected to do well, whereas in group 2 the
children are academically poor,
. This has been
born out by numerous studies in many fields, not
only in education.
A) the children in group 1 will do much better than
those in group 2.
B) the performance of each group is likely to be
C) the quality of the teaching could account for the
D) the children felt discouraged by the results.
E) the children in group 2 soon realized what was
happening and complained accordingly.
10) . The brain's main nutritional substance is
glucose. ___ . If a diabetic patient receives an
overdose of insulin there is a fall in the blood's
A) Moreover, the brain is the seat of intelligence.
B) Surgeons know exactly were to cut the affected
part of the brain.
C) The brain is very sensitive to changes in the
blood's glucose level.
D) This can have a harmful effect on a child's
E) Even so the effects of smoking cannot be
11) . ________ . This area is called a reservoir.
The water stored in it can be used for irrigation or
power generation; it can also be used to supply
water to homes and industry.
A) A dam is a wall, generally constructed across a
valley, to enclose an area in which water is stored.
B) A dam is a complicated structure, consisting of
C) The GAP project has already brought great
benefits to the region.
D) The site for any dam has to be chosen with great
E) South east Turkey is obviously even richer in
12) . People visit Cappodocia for several reasons.
Mainly they come for the exotic scenery and the
archaeological interest. _______ . Moreover in the
vicinity, there are many places of remarkable beauty
and historical significance.
A) Unfortunately it hasn't been sufficiently
B) The rock monasteries, in particular, draw large
C) It is only recently that the number of tourists
to Cappodocia has declined.
D) The majority of tourists coming to Turkey prefer
E) Few people realize that Cappodocia could be
developed as a tourist centre.
13) . Before 1950, in Britain, it was the
responsibility of the municipalities to provide gas
and electricity for public use. However, this was
changed by the Attlee government; _______. Among
them were steel, coal and railways.
A) even the conservatives were impressed at the
B) they were extremely concerned about unemployment
and economic decline.
C) there was naturally a large amount of public
D) the policy they followed was bound to make them
E) all gas and electricity services were
nationalized along with several other industries.
14) . Bridges are among the most significant; and
often the most spectacular, of all civil engineering
works. __________ . Without them it would be
impossible to imagine how traffic in Istanbul could
circulate. Furthermore they are the symbolic link of
A) A further aspect of civil engineering is the
choice of a suitable site.
B) The construction of bridges requires a number of
C) One of the major problems posed by long bridges
is that of maintenance.
D) The bridges across the Bosphorus are a case in
E) Historically there has always been a dream to
construct a bridge across the Bosphorus.
15) . Following World War II, there was an era of
great optimism, economic growth and affluence. It
lasted, however, for only a short period of time.
_________ . This was largely owing to continuous
economic recession and a whole series of world
crises. A) The super powers should be held
responsible for this state of affairs.
B) Especially in the West the growth in the
population was noticeable.
C) Many people looked forward to a better future for
D) Indeed the European Community took serious
measures aimed at reducing unemployment.
E) From the 1970s onwards a new mood of frustration
and disillusionment set in.
16) . Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a
lack of consistency in the use of the words "art"
and "beauty". ..... We always assume that all that
is beautiful is art, of that all art is beautiful,
that what is not beautiful is not art, and that
ugliness is that negation of art. This
identification of art and beauty is at the bottom of
all our difficulties in the appreciation of art.
A) The painter generally expresses himself by the
representation of the visible world.
B) The relation between art and religion is one of
the most difficult questions that we have to face.
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct
movement, having little or nothing in common with
D) It might be said that we are only consistent in
our misuse of these words.
E) Some people are quite unaware of the importance
of proportion in architecture, and have no-sense of
shape, surf ace and mass.
17) . At the beginning of this century, a group of
writers, from scattered midwestern towns came
together in bustling, commercial Chicago. From the
rough immediacy of the city, they forged a style
that was distinctively and unsparingly realistic.
...... In fact the critics were soon to describe
Chicago as the literary capital of the US.
A) Most of them, however ultimately moved away from
B) The "Chicago Renaissance", fuelled by these
writers, soon captured the attention of the rest of
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism
that there is a close relationship between cities
and their writers.
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast,
and not least in the field of architecture.
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways
from European realism.
18) . Italy is the great country of fountains, and
the fountains-of Rome are world famous. ..... It was
built in the time of Pope Clement XII about the
middle of the eighteenth century. The fountain and
the place behind it are a good example of the
baroque style of architecture, which gives feeling
of magnificence, movement and excitement.
A) The Fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the
most magnificent in the city.
B) This style is especially effective for fountains
because of the moving water.
C) The water is brought underground from a spring
many miles outside the city.
D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is surrounded
by numerous other figures.
E) The city of Rome has been the capital of Italy
ever since it was established thousands of years
19) . ..... His principal equipment is a leather
couch for patients to lie on and a cabinet of
mysterious drugs of one kind or another to send them
off to sleep. He is particularly interested in the
dreams of his patients and may use some form of
hypnosis to study their "responses" thoughts and
A) More and more large firms are realizing the
advantages offered by psychiatry.
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in treating
mentally sick individuals unless he is medically
C) It is essential to realize that psychologists are
first and foremost trained as scientists rather than
as medical experts.
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with
behaviour and its abnormalities.
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a fairly
20) . The Federal Republic of Germany, founded in
1949, had as its first Chancellor Dr. Konrad
Adenauer. His Christian Democrat government produced
conditions of stability and confidence in which
Germany rebuilt her shattered prosperity and a
viable parliamentary democracy. Further, his work in
building special relationship with France,
culminating in a treaty of friendship, was a
dramatic contrast to the long tradition of enmity
A) Even so, Adenauer's successor Dr. Erhard was a
loyal supporter of the Atlantic Alliance.
B) Furthermore, he strove relentlessly for German
renunciation within the boundaries of 1937,
stressing West German's right to speak for the whole
C) The Brandt Governments main achievements were in
the field of foreign policy
D) On the other hand, Brandt had built up his
reputation as mayor of West Berlin before he was
E) Indeed, the tensions within the government were
heightened by protracted negotiations between the
coalition partners over policies to counter the
sharply rising trend of unemployment.
21) . 1972 was not an easy or a successful year for
the Heath Government in Britain. It was a year of
confrontation with the trade unions. ...... Indeed
it was even forced to adopt certain policies similar
to those which it had attacked so vehemently when it
had been in Opposition.
A) Lastly, after 1972, there was industrial action
in protest against the Government's prices and
B) These problems were aggravated by persistently
high levels of unemployment especially in certain,
C) It was also a year in which the pressure of
circumstances forced the Government to abandon many
of the initiatives it had started in 1970.
D) Moreover, negotiations with the EEC started
immediately after the general election of 1970.
E) Consequently, a 90-day standstill was imposed on
wages, and prices and charges for goods and services
were similarly frozen.
22) . A fitter works in a fitting shop. The
operations that he performs include hack sawing,
chiselling and filing. He works on a heavy rigid
bench which has a vice bolted on it. He has various
hand tools to work with. ___. The fitting workshop
usually contains a marking-out table and a drilling
A) These include files, chisels and saws.
B) The latter is used for machining holes in the
C) The former is used for marking out before the
D) A surface grinder is used for producing a smooth
E) Hack sawing, chiselling and filing are done
before marking out.
23) . Secondary schools are schools for boys and
girls from eleven to nineteen years old. There are
secondary schools of one kind or another in all
A) some are day schools but others are boarding
B) with classes of all grades up to university
C) clever students from primary schools can get
scholarships to many of the best secondary schools.
D) the schools have well-equipped science
E) the pupils of day school live at home.
24) . Nowadays it is understood that a diet which
contains nothing harmful may yet result in a serious
disease if certain important elements are missing.
___. Quite a number of such substances are known and
they are given letters to identify them. A, B, C, D
and so on. Different diseases are associated with
deficiencies of particular vitamins.
A) Vegetables are necessary for a healthy body
B) A very restricted diet causes some problems
C) These elements are called "vitamins"
D) Deficiencies of the various vitamins cause
E) A good mixed diet is often difficult to arrange
25) . ___. When man first used animal skins is not
known. Skins, even when preserved by tanning, do not
last as long as stone, pottery, metals and bone, and
our knowledge about the early use of skins is vague.
A) Some skins are made into leather after the hair
or wool has been removed
B) Hides and skin are the raw material of the
leather manufacturer or tanner,
C) Beetles and other insects eat skins and must be
D) In the early stone Age, skins were prepared and
E) Any animal skin can be made into leather, but the
skins chiefly used come from cattle, sheep, goats,
pigs and horses,