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1) New York is America's most populous city; New York, the “Big Apple”, is one of the world's leading commercial, financial, and cultural centres. ________; in descending order of area, the boroughs are Queens, Brooklyn, Staten Island, the Bronx, and Manhattan. Almost all of the Bronx is situated on the mainland, but the other boroughs are situated on, or comprise, islands.

A) New York is subdivided into five boroughs
B) New York has been the gateway to America for successive influxes of immigrants from Europe
C) New York is a financial, commercial, manufacturing, and tourist centre.
D) The financial district of Lower Manhattan includes the New York Stock Exchange
E) Much domestic and international trade is conducted in New York's offices

2) As a writer, Lamartine is known chiefly for his poetry, which has the Romantic characteristics of sentiment. __________. His most popular and influential volume of poems is Méditations poétiques (Poetic Meditations, 1820).

A) He was minister of foreign affairs in the provisional government
B) It was expressed with lyric grace and refinement.
C) Lamartine was also a prolific writer of fiction
D) His prose works include Histoire de Girondins (1847)
E) Other volumes are Nouvelles méditations poétiques (New Poetic Meditations
3) The Kei School of sculptors, particularly Unkei, created a new, more realistic style of sculpture. The two Nio guardian images illustrate Unkei's dynamic suprarealistic style. ________. Hence, they were noteworthy indicatives of a developed studio system of artisans.
A) The multiple block technique allowed construction of large statues.
B) Unkei's polychromed wood sculptures are among the most accomplished realistic works of the period
C) They are remarkably individualized and believable images.
D) The images were carved of multiple blocks in a period of about three months.
E) The Kegon Engi Emaki, is an excellent example of the popularizing trend.

4) Education in Saudi Arabia is free but not compulsory. In the early 1990s the country had approximately 10,000 elementary schools with a total annual enrolment of about 2 million pupils. _________. As a result, they could obtain the aim of reducing the country’s great dependence on other Arab countries for teachers.
A) King Saud University was founded as the University of Riyadh in 1957.
B) Three other institutions of advanced learning are the Technical Institute
C) Additional institutes for religious training are located in Riyadh
D) Every year a number of qualified young Saudis enrol for advanced study in Europe.
E) In recent decades, teacher-training institutes have been established.

5) __________. Being one of the most serious forms of water pollution, it has most often been used in connection with losses of crude oil, or petroleum, to the marine environment. Best known among these are the big tanker wrecks such as the Torrey Canyon and the Exxon Valdez, the former spilling 860,000 barrels of oil off the coast of Cornwall, England

A) About 10 per cent of the oil is derived from tanker accidents.
B) Oil Pollution is the contamination of any part of the environment with any liquid hydrocarbon.
C) Other sources are atmospheric fallout, natural oil seepage.
D) Oil will be degraded by physical processes.
E) Evaporation of the oil occurs rapidly, with the volatile components.

6) The law of universal gravitation states that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force directly proportional to the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ___________.
A) Consequently, the gravitational pull diminishes with distance from the earth.
B) The gravitational field, however, extends to an infinite distance
C) Objects in a spacecraft are said to be weightless when it is in orbit.
D) Under these conditions, the objects float freely in the craft.
E) The spacecraft, therefore, must orbit if it is to remain in space.

7) The early history of the art of Assyria is still largely unknown. Middle Assyrian art shows some dependence on established Babylonian stylistic traditions, but secular themes are depicted more naturalistically. _________. At this time the technique of glazing bricks was used in Mesopotamia
A) It later resulted in the decoration of entire structures faced with glazed bricks.
B) Unlike earlier, plant ornamentation is highly stylized and artificial.
C) Symbols frequently replace depictions of gods.
D) For an illustration of these, the ziggurat was the principal form of Assyrian temple architecture.
E) The narrative frieze became the most important aspect of Assyrian art.
8) Cellular, or mobile phones, originally used in cars, airliners, and passenger trains, but increasingly becoming universal, are basically low-power radio-telephones. _______. However, they are getting more appealing as the days are passing.
A) Calls go through radio transmitters that are located within small geographical units called cells.
B) Narrow-band frequency modulation (FM) is the most common mode of transmission
C) The cellular market in Britain alone had grown at a rapid rate to over 6 million users by 1996.
D) In Japan it is as high as one mobile phone per ten people.
E) In the United Kingdom cable operators are gaining some 500,000 extra subscribers per month.


9) William Shakespeare was born on April 23rd, 1564 and died on April 23rd, 1616. This situation that Shakespeare came to the world and passed away on the same day and month is still making authorities busy. ___________. As a consequence of that debate, today all the people both on television and in the street are not sure about whether this is possible or not. It seems that this discussion will go on forever.

A) For it seems impossible that his birth date and the date of death can be punctual, they are not decisive whether a character like this lived or not.
B) What makes their mind busy is that they don’t have enough documents about this former life.
C) There are still some rumours that Shakespeare was affected by the way of life people were leading in those days.
D) The main problem was that further information couldn’t be gained because of the lack of written documents.
E) His contemporaries who lived in those days mention about that literary figure’s biography.


10) The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is considered Mark Twain’s masterpiece. The book is the story of the title character, known as Huck, a boy who flees his father by rafting down the Mississippi River with a runaway slave, Jim. __________. Another theme of the novel is the conflict between the Huck’s feelings of relationship with Jim, who is one of the few people he can trust, and his knowledge that he is breaking the laws of the time by helping Jim escape.

A) Huckleberry Finn, which is almost entirely narrated from Huck’s point of view, is noted for its authentic language
B) Twain’s skill in capturing the rhythms of that life help make the book one of the masterpieces of American literature
C) Huck’s adventures also provide the reader with a panorama of American life along the Mississippi before the civil war
D) Another interesting point to that story is the fact that it has appealed to the interest of the reader very much
E) The pair’s adventures show Huck and the reader the cruelty of which men and women are capable

11) The Mona Lisa, Leonardo's most famous work, is known for its mastery of technical innovations as for the mysteriousness of its legendary smiling subject. _________. Sfumato is characterized by subtle, almost infinitesimal transitions between colour areas, creating a delicately atmospheric haze or smoky effect; it is especially evident in the delicate gauzy robes worn by the sitter and in her enigmatic smile. Chiaroscuro is the technique of modelling and defining forms through contrasts of light and shadow.

A) Leonardo was among the first to introduce atmospheric perspective into his landscape backgrounds
B) Leonardo's many extant drawings, which reveal his mastery of the anatomy of humans, may be found in the principal European collections.
C) This work is a consummate example of two techniques sfumato and chiaroscuro
D) Because none of Leonardo's sculptural projects was brought to completion, his approach to three-dimensional art can only be judged from his drawings.
E) Although Leonardo produced a relatively small number of paintings, he was an extraordinarily innovative and influential artist.

12) Improvements in transport affected agriculture. Roads, canals, and railway lines enabled farmers to obtain necessary supplies and to market their produce over a wider area. Food could be protected in transport and shipped more economically than before as a result of rail, ship, and refrigeration developments of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Efficient use of these developments led to increasing specialization and eventual changes in the location of agricultural suppliers. ________.

A) When grain production proved unprofitable for European farmers, specialization in dairying, cheese-making, and other products was emphasized
B) In the last quarter of the 19th century, for example, Australian and North American suppliers displaced European suppliers of grain in the European market
C) The demand for food for urban workers and raw materials for industrial plants produced a realignment of world trade.
D) Other notable inventions included the seed drill of the English agriculturist Jethro Tull, developed in the early 1700s
E) This period also saw the development of the Byzantine Empire and the power of the Saracens in the Middle East

13) __________. The ombudsman system—ombudsman is Swedish for representative—originated in Sweden. It was established in 1809 by the Riksdag (parliament) to act as a control on the way the government conducted its affairs. Today, Sweden has four ombudsmen whose supervision covers national and local government agencies, civil servants, and other officials, and whose function is to uphold the rights of the rights of the individual against maladministration and bureaucratic abuse.

A) Ombudsman is the official whose duty is to investigate public complaints against the actions of a government
B) The Swedish system has served as a model and there are now ombudsmen in many other countries
C) In Sweden and elsewhere, the system has been extended so that special areas, such as consumer affairs and equal opportunities, have their own ombudsmen
D) Ombudsmen carry out their duties in two ways
E) Ombudsmen keep a watching brief on the agencies and institutions under their supervision

14) The development in Freud's theory stemmed from his observations on dreaming. He came to see that many of the characteristics of dreams were shared with the symptomatic memories recalled by his patients in the narrative of "free association". ______ . He did this in favour of encouraging the person to speak freely about whatever came into his or her mind. Unintentionally, the patient would bring order to these "free associations"—the structure and content of which Freud used to try to understand underlying unconscious processes.

A) In his therapeutic relationship with his patients, Freud had abandoned hypnotic suggestion
B) In dreams, he noted the same apparently unstructured experiences of thoughts and images coming into the mind
C) He defined resistance as the unconscious defence against awareness of repressed experiences in order to avoid the resulting anxiety
D) He came to understand the mind as a series of layers with the most superficial layers in conscious appreciation
E) Over the next two decades Freud's work concentrated on modifying and improving his theory of psychoanalysis



15) The Northwest Ordinance was passed by Congress in 1787. It set up the government structure of the region north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania, and then called the Northwest Territory. It set the conditions under which parts of the territory could become states having equality with the older states. ______. The law also guaranteed freedom of religion and trial by jury in the Territory.

A) The law also abolished slavery in the Territory
B) The terms were so attractive that thousands of pioneers poured into the Territory
C) But the ordinance was more than just a plan for government
D) Eventually, the Territory became the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
E) However, the law couldn’t make through although lots of precautions were taken

16) Jargon, the specialized language of a trade or profession, allows colleagues to communicate with each other clearly, efficiently, and quickly. _________. For instance, lawyers and tax accountants speak of an involuntary conversion of property when discussing the loss or destruction of property through theft, accident, or condemnation. So, if your house burns down, or your car is stolen or destroyed in an accident, you have, in legal jargon, suffered an involuntary conversion of your property.

A) But it can also be doublespeak – obscure terminology used to make the simple appear complex
B) In fact, this can be an inoffensive or positive word or phrase designed to avoid a harsh, unpleasant or distasteful reality
C) But it can also be a tactful word or phrase used to mislead everybody
D) On the other hand, it can also be used to express one’s grief for other people’s feeling after the death
E) Indeed, it is a mark of membership to be able to use and understand the group’s jargon


17) __________. Also it is the answer to which has profound implications for how people perceive technology. On the one hand, there are the social constructionists who believe that technology is a tool shaped by the bidding of its creators or, at least, that it is social groups who define and give meaning to artefacts. On the other hand there is the view that once launched, technology assumes a life of its own as an autonomous agent of change, driving history.

A) Historical accounts of technology can be constructed from many different perspectives
B) A remarkable feature of the history of technological development is the invisibility of women
C) The idea of a technology being appropriate in the sense of respecting the needs came into prominence in the 1960s
D) The extent to which technology is under human control is an important question
E) One striking way of bringing into relief the values embedded in technologies is by their transfer from one cultural context to another

18) Hans Christian Andersen is a Danish author, whose fairy tales have been translated into more than 80 languages and have inspired plays, ballets, films, and works of sculpture and painting. Born in Odense, he suffered from poverty and neglect during his childhood, and when he was 14 years of age he ran away to Copenhagen. _________. However, it was until Collin raised money to provide him with an education.

A) Andersen had poetry and prose published and plays produced beginning in 1822.
B) There he worked for Jonas Collin, director of the Royal Theater
C) Andersen's first novel, The Improviser was well received by critics
D) Andersen's tales of fantasy, which especially include “The Ugly Duckling” were innovative in their handling of sophisticated feelings and ideas
E) The language of his plays was so simple that children could understand what the theme of the story was


19) Chimpanzees communicate through vocalizations, facial expressions, posture, touch, and movement. Studies show that a young chimp is able to make as many as 34 different calls, and the facial musculature can express a wide range of emotions. The animals show great intelligence in problem solving and the use of simple tools, such as a stripped twig used to draw termites from their nests. A number of experiments have shown that chimps can even learn to use sign language or other languages based on pictures or symbols. _____________.

A) Chimpanzees form loosely organized bands of 2 to 80 individuals on fairly large home ranges
B) Except between mother and young, little permanency exists in individual relationships
C) Conservation efforts that prohibit the hunting and sale of chimpanzees provide some protection; however, these bans are difficult to enforce.
D) However, critics maintain that this does not constitute an understanding or use of words
E) The brain of a chimpanzee is about half the size of the human brain.

20) Turtles and Tortoises are common names for reptiles that are recognized by a hard shell that encloses the internal organs of the body. They are ancient life forms; the earliest recognized fossils date from the Triassic period, about 245 million years ago. __________. Unlike dinosaurs, however, turtles and tortoises have continued to adapt and flourish.

A) Turtles and tortoises show a wide variation in size, from the 15-cm box turtle of North America to the giant sea-dwelling leatherback
B) One family of turtles and tortoises constitutes about half the species in the order
C) Thus, turtles and tortoises were in existence before the emergence of the great dinosaur groups
D) By virtue of their thin-edged, flat shell these turtles are well adapted to a life of concealment on the bottoms of lakes and rivers.
E) In Australia all freshwater species are known as tortoises.


21) __________. Also it is the answer to which has profound implications for how people perceive technology. On the one hand, there are the social constructionists who believe that technology is a tool shaped by the bidding of its creators or, at least, that it is social groups who define and give meaning to artefacts. On the other hand there is the view that once launched, technology assumes a life of its own as an autonomous agent of change, driving history.

A) Historical accounts of technology can be constructed from many different perspectives
B) A remarkable feature of the history of technological development is the invisibility of women
C) The idea of a technology being appropriate in the sense of respecting the needs came into prominence in the 1960s
D) The extent to which technology is under human control is an important question
E) One striking way of bringing into relief the values embedded in technologies is by their transfer from one cultural context to another

22) Chimpanzees communicate through vocalizations, facial expressions, posture, touch, and movement. Studies show that a young chimp is able to make as many as 34 different calls, and the facial musculature can express a wide range of emotions. The animals show great intelligence in problem solving and the use of simple tools, such as a stripped twig used to draw termites from their nests. A number of experiments have shown that chimps can even learn to use sign language or other languages based on pictures or symbols. _____________.

A) Chimpanzees form loosely organized bands of 2 to 80 individuals on fairly large home ranges
B) Except between mother and young, little permanency exists in individual relationships
C) Conservation efforts that prohibit the hunting and sale of chimpanzees provide some protection; however, these bans are difficult to enforce.
D) However, critics maintain that this does not constitute an understanding or use of words
E) The brain of a chimpanzee is about half the size of the human brain.


23) Turtles and Tortoises are common names for reptiles that are recognized by a hard shell that encloses the internal organs of the body. They are ancient life forms; the earliest recognized fossils date from the Triassic period, about 245 million years ago. __________. Unlike dinosaurs, however, turtles and tortoises have continued to adapt and flourish.

A) Turtles and tortoises show a wide variation in size, from the 15-cm box turtle of North America to the giant sea-dwelling leatherback
B) One family of turtles and tortoises constitutes about half the species in the order
C) Thus, turtles and tortoises were in existence before the emergence of the great dinosaur groups
D) By virtue of their thin-edged, flat shell these turtles are well adapted to a life of concealment on the bottoms of lakes and rivers.
E) In Australia all freshwater species are known as tortoises.


 
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