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TEST – 40

Looking ahead from the present position where food production has kept ahead of population growth globally, but has fallen per capita in 55 (mainly African) countries, it would seem that these trends will continue. About 30 countries - most of them African - can expect serious problems unless they reduce population growth and give higher priority to agriculture and conservation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high CO2 levels is likely to be
capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inadequate for many poorer countries. In many cases, the population projections are greater than the entire local land resources can support.

1. Of all the countries in the world it is those in Africa ___.
A. which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth
B. that are most threatened by food shortages
C. which are environmentally most at a disadvantage
D. that are most conscious of the need to preserve the environment
E. in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development

2. It is argued in the passage that __.
A. changes in world climate are increasing the problems of food production
B. agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages
C. with the exception of African countries, the global production of food is adequate and likely to continue so
D. the conservation of land resources is of minor importance
E. every effort must be made to prevent the CO2 level from rising

3. According to the passage, it is anticipated that __.
A. the per capita income in Africa countries will continue to increase
B. food production will double in the years ahead
C. the present situation concerning population growth and food production will soon improve
D. all the African countries will soon solve all their population problems
E. unless serious measures are taken, the poor countries of the world will be faced with famine

Psychology is literally the study of the mind (or soul) but its area has broadened somewhat in the last century as we have learned that one cannot consider the mind as totally isolated from the body, and it now includes the study of human personality and behaviour. Psychologists also study the behaviour and brain of animals whenever such studies throw light on human behaviour. It is important to realize that
psychologists are first and foremost trained as scientists rather than as medical experts and do not necessarily take much interest in abnormalities of the brain and mental process.

4. As can be inferred from the passage, psychology __.
A. has in time developed as a branch of medicine
B. has always been confined to the study of the mind
C. is not concerned with the mind alone, but also with human-personality and behaviour
D. primarily concentrates on the study of animal behaviour
E. mostly deals with mental abnormalities

5. In the passages, attention is drawn to the fact that __.
A. psychologists give great importance to the study of mental processes for medical purposes
B. psychologists are basically scientists
C. the body and the mind are separate entities in the eyes of psychologists
D. the human mind can be best understood through the study of animal behaviour
E. there have been no noticeable developments in psychology since the last century

6. It is pointed out in the passage that __.
A. a close cooperation between psychologists and medical experts is essential
B. the study of human behaviour alone is what interests present-day psychologists
C. as a branch of science, psychology is no longer to be understood in its literal sense
D. the mind and the body function independently
E. in recent years psychologists have concentrated mostly on the study of the mind

Aid to underdeveloped countries takes many forms and it is given for many reasons. Underdeveloped countries need aid to provide finance for development projects to provide foreign exchange with which imports for development purpose can be bought; and to provide the trained manpower and technical knowledge they lack. The motives of the donor are not always humanitarian. "Aid can take a military form; it can be used to support an incompetent or unjust government. Nor is aid always beneficial to the recipient country. It may be wasted on ill-concerned or prestige projects, or cause the government simply to relax its own efforts.

7. In the passage, it is argued that the reasons behind the aid given to underdeveloped countries __.
A. are always of a military nature
B. are varied in purpose and in effect
C. can be disregarded altogether
D. invariably involved humanitarian principals
E. relate only to the technical needs of the recipient country

8. One infers from the passage that what is generally referred to as aid __.
A. usually leads to the overthrow of the government of the recipient country
B. is in fact, monetary support for development projects only
C. is actually one country's intervention in another country's internal affairs
D. does not necessarily benefit the recipient country
E. can really be regarded as a waste of resources

9. According to the passage, unless they receive aid, underdeveloped countries __.
A. will loose their world-wide prestige
B. often face military coups
C. will be at the mercy of donor countries
D. will have to rely on foreign technical advice for many years to come
E. cannot provide money and human recourses for development

In one very long sentence, the introduction to the UN Charter
expresses the ideals and the common goals of all the peoples
whose governments joined together to form the UN. We the peoples of the UN determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold suffering to mankind, and to reaffirm faith in fundamental rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small, and to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, and for these ends, to practise tolerance and live together in peace with one another as good neighbours, and to unite our strength to maintain international peace and security, and to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and the institution of methods, that
armed force shall not be used, save in the common interest, and to employ international machinery for the promotion of economic and social advancement of all peoples, have resolved to combine our efforts to accomplish these aims.

10. The first stated goal of the UN was ___
A. to supervise peace treaties
B. to establish "The United Nations".
C. to assist the "third world" countries
D. to prevent a third world war.
E. to create a situation which supports justice and the
fulfilment of international agreements.

11. Under its Charter, the UN guarantees ___
A. to support economic and social advancement
B. never to use arms
C. better standards of housing
D. better education
E. the human rights
12. Following (line 4) means ___.
A. struggling
B. concentration
C. shared
D. following
E. successful

A society like that of medieval England would nowadays be classified and described as 'pre-industrial'. Its income came mostly from agriculture and by far the largest proportion of its people was engaged in growing food. The numbers occupied in trade and industry formed a comparatively small proportion of the total; and even those so occupied often combined their industrial and commercial occupations with some agricultural pursuits that does not, however, mean that industrial and commercial activities were altogether insignificant and played little part in shaping the economic
geography of the country or in directing the way of its economic development.

13. In medieval England .....
A) agriculture brought as high an income as industry
B) trade and industry were wholly unimportant
C) economic development depended on commerce
D) people made their living by working in factories
E) more people were engaged in agriculture than in industry

14. In the passage, the author emphasizes the ...
A) increase in industrial activity in medieval England
B) relative significance of agriculture over industry
C) difficulty of growing food in the Middle Ages
D) role of industry in the development of agriculture
E) dependence of England on commerce for growth

15. One can say that economic life in medieval England ...
A) played a significant part in the rise of the middle class
B) depended on agricultural activities only
C) did not consist entirely of agriculture
D) changed the geography as well as the history of the country
E) was already more developed than in any other part of the world

When we go to the theatre we expect to find some excitement on the stage. We also hope not to be bored by a lack of a good plot or movement. We want our play to be somewhat close to real life, with characters whom we can recognize as having a 'psychology' like our own. We want them to entertain us and convey ideas and information which we did not have before.

16. Good plot and movement .....
A) must not be boring for the audience
B) are among the elements we expect to find in a good play
C) are the main elements which are not often found in a play
D) can easily be found in every play
E) do not contribute to the enjoyment of a play

17. To the author, .....
A) we want to interpret the experiences of the players
B) everybody shouldn't expect to find himself in a play
C) nobody wants to see real life depicted in a play
D) characters in a play must relate to real people
E) we mustn't be emotionally affected by a play
18. In the passage the writer thinks that a play...
A) contains a number of unusual characters
B) should appeal to our senses only
C) must emphasize psychological rather than social reality
D) often has an undesirable effect on the audience
E) must offer us new ideas and experiences

Researches show that more than three cups of coffee a day can cause unpleasant symptoms such as nervousness, irritability and insomnia. Thus, although many people build up a certain tolerance for the stimulant, experiments indicate that caffeine users take longer to fall asleep than non-users and they also wake up more often. The effects of caffeine are similar in persons of all ages, but certain groups are particularly sensitive to the drug, including the elderly children, pregnant women, and those suffering from heart disease, hypertension, and emotional illness.

19. One can understand from the passage that...
A) children are particularly sensitive to some drugs
B) the effects of caffeine are deadly for all age groups
C) coffee drinkers must sleep less
D) caffeine is the only cause of nervousness
E) most people can tolerate a moderate amount of coffee a day

20. It is explained in the passage that...
A) over a certain amount of caffeine has a harmful effect on our health
B) the elderly are more sensitive to caffeine than any other age group
C) caffeine is good for a sound sleep
D) heart patients can tolerate fairly large amounts of caffeine
E) the more caffeine one takes, the earlier one gets up

21. The author stresses.....
A) how useful coffee is in our everyday life
B) that certain people should be particularly careful about their daily caffeine intake
C) the need for many people to watch their health in old age.
D) how serious some bodily disorders are.
E) the use of the experiments carried out to determine people's tolerance to various drugs

The criminal justice system has three differently organized parts: the police, the courts and corrections. Each has separate tasks. But, these parts are by no means independent of each other. The courts must deal with those whom the police arrest; the business of corrections is to reform those delivered to it by the courts. However, it is not certain whether convicts can actually be reformed at all this way.

22. The writer....
A) believes that convicts receive unfair treatment in courts
B) does not refer to the organization of the criminal justice system
C) emphasizes the responsibility of the police in the prevention of crime
D) argues for stronger measures in the criminal justice system
E) is doubtful whether the justice system can reform criminals

23. The passage is mainly about ....
A) the co-operation between the police and the courts
B) the ways through which convicts are reformed
C) the institutional structure and functions of the criminal justice system
D) the institutions which are not related to the criminal justice system
E) the reforms needed in the criminal justice system

24. It is understood that the parts of the criminal justice system....
A) have individually specified but interrelated duties
B) lay down principles for the arrest of convicts
C) do not depend on one another at all
D) must sometimes exchange their roles
E) are organized to conduct trials


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