After 1933 the western world realized that it was
living in another age of absolutism, or rather, in
an age of totalitarian dictatorship far worse than
the worst of the old absolute kings; such regimes
could be seen to be enforcing a "law" that was the
command barely of a "sovereign" but of a cruel and
despot. It was ordinary people who protested: "This
cannot be...?" Law, if it is to deserve the name of
law, must respect at least some basic rights to
which every human being is entitled simply because
he is human.
1. In accordance with the passage, compared with the
absolute kings of the past, modern dictators
A. have been far more cruel and oppressive.
B. have shown a relatively high respect for the
rights of the individual.
C. have received considerable support from ordinary
D. have shown leniency in the enforcement of law.
E. have always been anxious to rule by law.
2. The writer supposes that a major distinctive
feature of "law" is........
A. to prevent the rise of totalitarianism in
B. that it disregards the rights of ordinary people.
C. respect for basic human rights.
D. to uphold respect for the sovereign.
E. that it should make a return to absolutism
3. In accordance with the passage, the major protest
against the despots of modern times ........
A. has been largely on account of their genocide
B. began to increase after 1933
C. has largely been confined to the Western world
D. has been due to a growing fear of totalitarianism
E. has come from common people who are concerned
about their basic rights
The shopping centre emerged in the early 1900s in
the suburbs that encircled American cities. Suburbs
on that time tended to be chiefly residential and
depend on the traditional city centres for shopping.
The first suburban commercial centres had three
identifiable features: they consisted of a number of
stores built and leased by a single developer; they
were usually situated at a significant intersection,
and they provided plenty of free, off-street
parking. These "shopping villages" resembled
small-town shopping districts, both in their
architecture, which was carefully traditional, and
in their layout, which integrated them into the
surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced the
street and the parking were usually in the rear.
4. Before the introduction of shopping centres,
those living in the residential suburban areas
A. were anxious to keep commercial activities there
to a minimum.
B. usually preferred to go to nearby small towns so
as to do their shopping.
C. forced parking a great problem when they went
downtown to shop.
D. had to go into the centre of the city to do their
E. felt that shopping facilities could not be
integrated such neighbourhoods.
5. A popular site for the early shopping centres in
the United States was .........
A. the very heart of a big city with roads directly
serving all the suburbs.
B. one near an important road junction with space
enough to provide sufficient parking facilities.
C. the villages bordering on the suburbs on a town,
since they too would benefit from the facilities.
D. a suitable point midway between two of three
E. one that was in the hands of a single developer
6. The new "shopping villages" were reminiscent of
small-town shopping areas ...........
A. since many architects felt these could hardly be
integrated effectively into suburban conditions.
B. though the stores faced onto the parking lots,
not the streets.
C. as regards both the architectural style and the
arrangement of the buildings.
D. even though the architecture was very different.
E. as most developers wanted to bring something new
into the commercial activities of the region.
Computers have brought about a greater change in our
society in recent decades than any other force and
likely to continue to do so until the next century,
industry surrounding computers is growing rapidly,
providing employment for many but at the same time
making others redundant. Jobs which computers can
do far more reliably, faster and cheaper are lost.
redeployment of labour and the prospect of increased
leisure are causing social upheavals which require
ideas and significant changes of attitude.
7. It is pointed out in the passage that the
introduction of computers into daily life ________.
A. has had no effect on the traditional habits of
B. has completely solved the problem of unemployment
C. can be regarded as the greatest technical
achievement of the age
D. has led to an improvement in working conditions '
E. has brought a lot of benefits but has also
created some serious problems
8. According to the passage, the impact computers
have had on society _______ .
A. will certainly continue to increase right through
the next century
B. has generally been confined to industrial life
C. has been unnecessarily exaggerated in recent
D. has exceeded that of any other technological
development in recent times
E. is very much less than it has been on industry
9. As is implied in the passage, the widespread use
of computers in industry_______.
A. has made considerable changes in the working
B. has reduced the working hours but not the work
C. has unfortunately increased production costs
D. will, in the next century, lead to even more
E. has given rise to many new solutions to the
problems of unemployment.
The achievement of equality between men and women
implies that they should have equal rights,
opportunities and responsibilities to enable them to
develop their talents and capabilities for their own
personal fulfilment and the benefit of society. To
that end a reassessment of the functions and roles
traditionally allotted to each sex within the family
the community at large is essential. Governments
should ensure both women and men equality before
law, the provision of facilities for equality of
educational opportunities and training, equality in
conditions of employment, including remuneration and
adequate social security.
10. The passage emphasizes that the question of
equality between men and women _______ .
A. has seldom been treated seriously at a
B. includes not only equality before the law, but
also equality in opportunities and exercise of
C. is primarily related to economic matters
D. has been greatly exaggerated in recent decades
E. was never intended to include the field of
11. As is pointed out in the passage, the equality
of the sexes essentially means for everyone ______ .
A. a wide range of benefits including job security
and a steady income
B. the definition of the functions and roles each
gender has in society
C. a full development of individual talents and
D. increase in family responsibilities
E. a similar life style and fewer responsibilities
12. It is made clear in the passage that the
maintenance of equality between men and women in
A. has been ensured in most Western societies
B. is primarily the responsibility of governments
C. is never likely to be realized
D. is of little concern to governments
E. has first to be achieved within the family circle
In the mid-1970s, after 30 years of rapid growth and
unprecedented prosperity for the major Western
economies, the prospects for continued growth became
much less favourable. This resulted partly from the
acceleration of inflation in many countries,
bringing with it insecurity and militancy in
industrial relations. However, the main cause was
the remarkable increase in the price of oil in 1973
and again in 1979, a fuel on which the Western
economies had become heavily dependent. This
produced a strong burst of inflation; and, because
much of the oil revenue accruing to
producers could not be spent, gave rise to an
unprecedented balance of payments problem and severe
13. One can understand from the passage that, in the
three decades prior to the mid-nineteen seventies,
A. most Western economies entered a phase of
insecurity and industrial decline
B. industrial relations in the West had deteriorated
to a marked extent
C. inflation in industrialized countries had reached
an unprecedented level
D. the economic position had met with numerous
E. the West experienced a period of unparalleled
14. It is pointed out in the passage that rising oil
1973 and 1979 _______ .
A. opened the way to ruin of many Western economies
B. provided the West with the opportunity of
developing alternative fuels
C. had actually very little impact on world
D. was a direct result of the growing inflation in
E. helped to prevent the rise the militancy in
15. It is explained in the passage that the world
recession of the mid-1970s was largely due to the
fact that ______ .
A. most Western countries ignored their balance of
B. there was a high rate of unemployment in the West
C. Western economies failed to maintain good
D. much of the profit made by oil producers was not
channelled back into world economies
E. Western economies were increasingly dependent
upon oil imports
Nova Fabrics is a Portuguese textile and clothing
which, until recently, employed 200 workers and had
turnover of 6 million pounds. Now, however, Nova is
facing serious problems. In the last two years its
sales have remained steady, but profits have fallen
sharply. This is because Pakistani and Italian
have been forcing prices down. In the ready-to-wear
market, the situation is worse. Competition is
cut-throat. Exporters from 24 low-cost countries are
fighting for a share of the European market. Nova is
suffering from this competition. The stores are now
bargaining hard over prices, and Nova has already
two large orders.
16. The passage presents the case of a textile firm
A. on the whole, has been showing a steady
improvement in its position
B. in recent years, has recovered its lost markets
by introducing drastic measures .
C. owing to fierce international competition, is
having to struggle to survive
D. quite unfairly, has laid off more than half of
its work force
E. in the long run, seems likely to defeat its main
17. We can understand from the passage that the area
which has been hit worst by international
competition ______ .
A. has been textile industries of India and Pakistan
B. is that of fabric sales in which Nova has made
C. is the home market itself in which Nova used to
be in the lead
D. is the clothing industry in Portugal
E. has been ready-to-wear market
18. One can conclude from the passage that Nova's
A. are due to the unrest among the workers
B. arise from the growing market pressure of
C. must be related to the continuous rise in prices
D. are linked with the lack of interest in the
E. began with the loss of two large orders
In 1945 Japanese rule in Korea came to an end, after
years, when the Russians occupied the northern part
the country and the Americans the south. It was
planned that the country should be reunified after
elections, but in practice rival governments were
up. The Korean War broke out in 1950 when
Communist North Korea, under King IL-sung, invaded
the South with Chinese support in an attempt to
the country by force. South Korea was supported by a
United Nations Force in what was really an American
"containment" operation. In 1953 an armistice was
signed and the demarcation line between North and
South Korea was agreed.
19. According to the passage, it was the invasion of
South Korea by the Communist North that _______ .
A. caused the outbreak of the Korean War
B. the Japanese had tried hard to prevent
C. received the support of a United Nations Force
D. made the signing of the armistice vital
E. induced the Chinese to abide by the decision of
the United Nations
20. It is obvious from the passage that the
withdrawal of Japan from Korea in 1945 _______ .
A. was the result of pressure from the United
B. lead to a period of greater economic prosperity
C. gave Kim IL-sung the chance to co-operate with
the United States
D. was concluded after the signing of an armistice
between the United States and Russia
E. was brought about, in part, by the Russians
21. As is explained in the passage, the
reunification of Korea after the Japanese withdrawal
A. was the last thing America and Russia desired
B. was forestalled because of the drawing of the
demarcation line between the North Korea and the
C. did not take place because the North and the
South set up their own separate governments
D. would have been achieved by King IL-sung but for
the intervention of China
E. was to be followed by the holding of free
elections and the
establishment of a pro-American government
What is the current role of the United States? Is
some say, a nation in decline, one that is falling
in the competitive arena of international trade? Or
undergoing a process of adaptation and renewal? A
spate of books has been published on the subject
during the past few years, and these have sparked a
wide- ranging public debate over these concerns. One
of the best known of these books is Paul Kennedy's
Rise and Fall of the Great Powers.. In fact, Paul
Kennedy is the most prominent of the decline
theorists. Examining the history of great powers
such as/16th century Spain and the British Empire
around 1900, he identifies a pattern of "imperial
overstretch." To maintain a position of dominance,
great powers over time find themselves devoting'
an increasing share of their resources to military
security. This often leads to a neglect of
technological innovation and, ultimately, to a
decline in economic strength.
22. The questions with which the author begins this
passage _____ .
A. imply that the United States is an invincible
B. explain his full trust in the strength of the
C. clearly show that he is uncertain about the
present position of the United States in the world
D. demonstrate the author's confidence in the future
of his country
E. bear almost no relationship to the argument that
is then developed
23. In his Rise and Fall of Great Powers , Paul
A. points out that the British Empire collapsed
because it ignored new advances in technology
B. argues that the great powers in the past declined
because of the drain on resources for military
C. explains that the Spanish Empire in the 16th
century was solely concerned with its economic
D. is of the opinion that the term "imperial
overstretch" has been misused among historians
E. confines himself to a study of current
international issues that concern the United States
24. According to the passage, the question of the
current role of the United States ______ .
A. should not be related to the concept of "imperial
B. is of little interest to anyone but political
C. has not viewed within any historical context
D. has triggered off a great deal of discussion
E. has received its most plausible explanation in
Paul Kennedy's latest book