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TEST – 38

After 1933 the western world realized that it was living in another age of absolutism, or rather, in an age of totalitarian dictatorship far worse than the worst of the old absolute kings; such regimes could be seen to be enforcing a "law" that was the command barely of a "sovereign" but of a cruel and despot. It was ordinary people who protested: "This cannot be...?" Law, if it is to deserve the name of law, must respect at least some basic rights to which every human being is entitled simply because he is human.

1. In accordance with the passage, compared with the absolute kings of the past, modern dictators ........
A. have been far more cruel and oppressive.
B. have shown a relatively high respect for the rights of the individual.
C. have received considerable support from ordinary people.
D. have shown leniency in the enforcement of law.
E. have always been anxious to rule by law.

2. The writer supposes that a major distinctive feature of "law" is........
A. to prevent the rise of totalitarianism in society.
B. that it disregards the rights of ordinary people.
C. respect for basic human rights.
D. to uphold respect for the sovereign.
E. that it should make a return to absolutism impossible.

3. In accordance with the passage, the major protest against the despots of modern times ........
A. has been largely on account of their genocide actions
B. began to increase after 1933
C. has largely been confined to the Western world
D. has been due to a growing fear of totalitarianism
E. has come from common people who are concerned about their basic rights

The shopping centre emerged in the early 1900s in the suburbs that encircled American cities. Suburbs on that time tended to be chiefly residential and depend on the traditional city centres for shopping. The first suburban commercial centres had three identifiable features: they consisted of a number of stores built and leased by a single developer; they were usually situated at a significant intersection, and they provided plenty of free, off-street parking. These "shopping villages" resembled small-town shopping districts, both in their architecture, which was carefully traditional, and in their layout, which integrated them into the surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced the street and the parking were usually in the rear.

4. Before the introduction of shopping centres, those living in the residential suburban areas ..........
A. were anxious to keep commercial activities there to a minimum.
B. usually preferred to go to nearby small towns so as to do their shopping.
C. forced parking a great problem when they went downtown to shop.
D. had to go into the centre of the city to do their shopping.
E. felt that shopping facilities could not be integrated such neighbourhoods.

5. A popular site for the early shopping centres in the United States was .........
A. the very heart of a big city with roads directly serving all the suburbs.
B. one near an important road junction with space enough to provide sufficient parking facilities.
C. the villages bordering on the suburbs on a town, since they too would benefit from the facilities.
D. a suitable point midway between two of three suburban areas.
E. one that was in the hands of a single developer and architect.

6. The new "shopping villages" were reminiscent of small-town shopping areas ...........
A. since many architects felt these could hardly be integrated effectively into suburban conditions.
B. though the stores faced onto the parking lots, not the streets.
C. as regards both the architectural style and the arrangement of the buildings.
D. even though the architecture was very different.
E. as most developers wanted to bring something new into the commercial activities of the region.

Computers have brought about a greater change in our
society in recent decades than any other force and are
likely to continue to do so until the next century, The
industry surrounding computers is growing rapidly,
providing employment for many but at the same time
making others redundant. Jobs which computers can
do far more reliably, faster and cheaper are lost. The
redeployment of labour and the prospect of increased
leisure are causing social upheavals which require new
ideas and significant changes of attitude.

7. It is pointed out in the passage that the introduction of computers into daily life ________.
A. has had no effect on the traditional habits of society
B. has completely solved the problem of unemployment
C. can be regarded as the greatest technical achievement of the age
D. has led to an improvement in working conditions '
E. has brought a lot of benefits but has also created some serious problems

8. According to the passage, the impact computers have had on society _______ .
A. will certainly continue to increase right through the next century
B. has generally been confined to industrial life
C. has been unnecessarily exaggerated in recent years
D. has exceeded that of any other technological development in recent times
E. is very much less than it has been on industry

9. As is implied in the passage, the widespread use of computers in industry_______.
A. has made considerable changes in the working system inevitable
B. has reduced the working hours but not the work load
C. has unfortunately increased production costs
D. will, in the next century, lead to even more disillusionment .
E. has given rise to many new solutions to the problems of unemployment.

The achievement of equality between men and women
implies that they should have equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities to enable them to develop their talents and capabilities for their own personal fulfilment and the benefit of society. To that end a reassessment of the functions and roles traditionally allotted to each sex within the family and
the community at large is essential. Governments should ensure both women and men equality before law, the provision of facilities for equality of educational opportunities and training, equality in conditions of employment, including remuneration and adequate social security.

10. The passage emphasizes that the question of equality between men and women _______ .
A. has seldom been treated seriously at a governmental level
B. includes not only equality before the law, but also equality in opportunities and exercise of rights
C. is primarily related to economic matters
D. has been greatly exaggerated in recent decades
E. was never intended to include the field of politics

11. As is pointed out in the passage, the equality of the sexes essentially means for everyone ______ .
A. a wide range of benefits including job security and a steady income
B. the definition of the functions and roles each gender has in society
C. a full development of individual talents and capabilities
D. increase in family responsibilities
E. a similar life style and fewer responsibilities

12. It is made clear in the passage that the maintenance of equality between men and women in society _______
A. has been ensured in most Western societies
B. is primarily the responsibility of governments
C. is never likely to be realized
D. is of little concern to governments
E. has first to be achieved within the family circle

In the mid-1970s, after 30 years of rapid growth and
unprecedented prosperity for the major Western economies, the prospects for continued growth became much less favourable. This resulted partly from the acceleration of inflation in many countries, bringing with it insecurity and militancy in industrial relations. However, the main cause was the remarkable increase in the price of oil in 1973 and again in 1979, a fuel on which the Western economies had become heavily dependent. This produced a strong burst of inflation; and, because much of the oil revenue accruing to
producers could not be spent, gave rise to an unprecedented balance of payments problem and severe world recession.

13. One can understand from the passage that, in the three decades prior to the mid-nineteen seventies, _______ .
A. most Western economies entered a phase of insecurity and industrial decline
B. industrial relations in the West had deteriorated to a marked extent
C. inflation in industrialized countries had reached an unprecedented level
D. the economic position had met with numerous setbacks
E. the West experienced a period of unparalleled economic boom

14. It is pointed out in the passage that rising oil prices in
1973 and 1979 _______ .
A. opened the way to ruin of many Western economies
B. provided the West with the opportunity of developing alternative fuels
C. had actually very little impact on world economies
D. was a direct result of the growing inflation in the West
E. helped to prevent the rise the militancy in industrial relations

15. It is explained in the passage that the world recession of the mid-1970s was largely due to the fact that ______ .
A. most Western countries ignored their balance of payments policies
B. there was a high rate of unemployment in the West
C. Western economies failed to maintain good industrial relations
D. much of the profit made by oil producers was not channelled back into world economies
E. Western economies were increasingly dependent upon oil imports

Nova Fabrics is a Portuguese textile and clothing firm
which, until recently, employed 200 workers and had a
turnover of 6 million pounds. Now, however, Nova is
facing serious problems. In the last two years its fabric
sales have remained steady, but profits have fallen
sharply. This is because Pakistani and Italian suppliers,
have been forcing prices down. In the ready-to-wear
market, the situation is worse. Competition is
cut-throat. Exporters from 24 low-cost countries are
fighting for a share of the European market. Nova is
suffering from this competition. The stores are now
bargaining hard over prices, and Nova has already lost
two large orders.

16. The passage presents the case of a textile firm which, ______
A. on the whole, has been showing a steady improvement in its position
B. in recent years, has recovered its lost markets by introducing drastic measures .
C. owing to fierce international competition, is having to struggle to survive
D. quite unfairly, has laid off more than half of its work force
E. in the long run, seems likely to defeat its main competitors

17. We can understand from the passage that the area which has been hit worst by international competition ______ .
A. has been textile industries of India and Pakistan
B. is that of fabric sales in which Nova has made great profits
C. is the home market itself in which Nova used to be in the lead
D. is the clothing industry in Portugal
E. has been ready-to-wear market

18. One can conclude from the passage that Nova's problems
A. are due to the unrest among the workers
B. arise from the growing market pressure of low-cost countries
C. must be related to the continuous rise in prices in textile
D. are linked with the lack of interest in the European market
E. began with the loss of two large orders

In 1945 Japanese rule in Korea came to an end, after 36
years, when the Russians occupied the northern part of
the country and the Americans the south. It was
planned that the country should be reunified after free
elections, but in practice rival governments were set
up. The Korean War broke out in 1950 when
Communist North Korea, under King IL-sung, invaded
the South with Chinese support in an attempt to unify
the country by force. South Korea was supported by a
United Nations Force in what was really an American
"containment" operation. In 1953 an armistice was
signed and the demarcation line between North and
South Korea was agreed.

19. According to the passage, it was the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North that _______ .
A. caused the outbreak of the Korean War
B. the Japanese had tried hard to prevent
C. received the support of a United Nations Force
D. made the signing of the armistice vital
E. induced the Chinese to abide by the decision of the United Nations

20. It is obvious from the passage that the withdrawal of Japan from Korea in 1945 _______ .
A. was the result of pressure from the United Nations
B. lead to a period of greater economic prosperity
C. gave Kim IL-sung the chance to co-operate with the United States
D. was concluded after the signing of an armistice between the United States and Russia
E. was brought about, in part, by the Russians

21. As is explained in the passage, the reunification of Korea after the Japanese withdrawal ______ .
A. was the last thing America and Russia desired
B. was forestalled because of the drawing of the demarcation line between the North Korea and the south
C. did not take place because the North and the South set up their own separate governments
D. would have been achieved by King IL-sung but for the intervention of China
E. was to be followed by the holding of free elections and the
establishment of a pro-American government

What is the current role of the United States? Is it, as
some say, a nation in decline, one that is falling behind
in the competitive arena of international trade? Or is it
undergoing a process of adaptation and renewal? A spate of books has been published on the subject during the past few years, and these have sparked a wide- ranging public debate over these concerns. One of the best known of these books is Paul Kennedy's Rise and Fall of the Great Powers.. In fact, Paul Kennedy is the most prominent of the decline theorists. Examining the history of great powers such as/16th century Spain and the British Empire around 1900, he identifies a pattern of "imperial overstretch." To maintain a position of dominance, great powers over time find themselves devoting'
an increasing share of their resources to military security. This often leads to a neglect of technological innovation and, ultimately, to a decline in economic strength.

22. The questions with which the author begins this passage _____ .
A. imply that the United States is an invincible world power
B. explain his full trust in the strength of the United States
C. clearly show that he is uncertain about the present position of the United States in the world
D. demonstrate the author's confidence in the future of his country
E. bear almost no relationship to the argument that is then developed

23. In his Rise and Fall of Great Powers , Paul Kennedy_______ .
A. points out that the British Empire collapsed because it ignored new advances in technology
B. argues that the great powers in the past declined because of the drain on resources for military security
C. explains that the Spanish Empire in the 16th century was solely concerned with its economic strength
D. is of the opinion that the term "imperial overstretch" has been misused among historians
E. confines himself to a study of current international issues that concern the United States

24. According to the passage, the question of the current role of the United States ______ .
A. should not be related to the concept of "imperial overstretch"
B. is of little interest to anyone but political historians
C. has not viewed within any historical context
D. has triggered off a great deal of discussion throughout society
E. has received its most plausible explanation in Paul Kennedy's latest book


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