A subject in which there has been lots of interest
recently is the acquisition of language. 'Normal'
children, that is, those who have not had a
particularly rich environment-usually begin talking
after the first year of their life. By eighteen
months they have a vocabulary of about half a dozen
words and at two years a vocabulary of more than a
hundred words. The traditional view has been that
during the first year of life, babies are not mature
enough to learn languages. Talking, however, is only
the outer manifestation of the development of the
language long before he first utters a meaningful
word a baby can be observed responding to the
language of the others.
1. As explained in the passage, the way in which a
language is acquired .......
A. is noticeably affected by the social background
of the child.
B. follows a very similar pattern in all children.
C. has lately attracted a great deal of attention.
D. does not depend at all upon the age of a child.
E. is best observed during, the first two years of
2. In accordance with the passage, one can define
"talking" as ........
A. the first means for a child to communicate with
B. the positive proof that a language is being
C. the manifestation of a child's physical
D. the first step towards acquiring a language.
E. a way of building up a vocabulary.
3. The passage makes tells that we now have
A. a revised review of language acquisition, among
B. a distorted view of how a child begins to
C. returned to the traditional theory concerning
language acquisition among children.
D. a rather contradictory theory concerning the
acquisition of language two-year-olds.
E. the means and techniques to speed up vocabulary
acquisition among one-year-olds.
Economic dynamics have resolutely shifted from the
national economy to the world economy. From now on
any country -and also any business, especially a
large one- that wants to prosper will have to accept
that it is the world economy that leads and that
domestic economic policies will succeed only if they
strengthen, or at least, do not impair the country's
international competitive position. This may be the
most important. It surely is the most striking
feature of the changed world economy.
4. The writer tells that one significant development
in economy has been ........
A. the stress on the importance of domestic economic
B. the growing importance of national economic
C. a keener competition between domestic and
D. that national economies are now closely
interrelated with the world economy
E. the decline of competition in home markets
5. It is clear from the passage that, for a country
to achieve economic prosperity, it .......
A. has to encourage and support big corporations.
B. must protect itself from new dynamics in domestic
C. has to think and plan in terms of World economy.
D. must be ruthless in economic policies.
E. must create competition within the domestic
6. The passage is about ..........
A. the growing importance of internationalism in the
field of economics
B. the dangers of foreign competition in trade
C. the dynamics in the implementation of domestic
D. the question of how big business can influence
the world economy negatively
E. some of the more striking features of the current
In Britain, the Queen is a constitutional monarch.
In law she is the head of the executive, an integral
part of the legislature, had of the judiciary,
commander- in-chief of the armed forces and temporal
head of the Church of England. Actually, the Queen's
role is purely formal: she reigns, but she does not
rule. In all important respects she acts only on the
advice of her ministers. However, she still plays an
important role symbolically as Head of State and
Head of the Commonwealth.
7. The passage is mainly about ______.
A. how the Queen's progress could be restrained
B. the Queen's firm control of the government
through her executive powers
C. the powers the Queen has and the role she plays
in the rule of the country
D. the influence the Queen has over the Church of
E. the need for the abolishment of the monarchy in
8. It is clear from the passage that the Queen's
A. extends through all the main institutions of the
B. is strictly confined to the affairs of the
C. is controlled by the legislature
D. depends fundamentally on the support of the armed
E. has no legal basis
9. It is pointed out in the passage that on all
serious issues the Queen ______.
A. relies heavily on the guidance of the judiciary
B. does not act on her own initiative, but consults
C. acts in accordance with the principles of the
Church of England
D. turns to the Commonwealth for advice and support
E. keeps aloof so as to maintain her symbol status
The 1970s were a period of marked economic recession
in the West. The effects were widespread; even the
publishing sector was badly hit. Inflation went on
pushing up the costs of paper and printing,
increasing the price of books generally and reducing
the amount of money available for the publication of
new and experimental work. There was a growing
sense, in the world of literature no less than in
other spheres of production, that this crisis must
involve changes that would be neither simple nor
10. It is stressed in the passage that, as a result
of the economic recession experienced in the West in
the 1970s both publishers and writers _______.
A. felt that a long and difficult period lay ahead
B. made huge profits from the sale of new and
C. were in agreement with the measures being
introduced to check inflation.
D. recognized the need to keep down book prices.
E. were extremely worried about the rising cost of
11. The writer implies that, due to growing
A. took temporary measures to overcome the
B. ceased to publish literary works.
C. introduced a number of radical changes.
D. could no longer afford to bring out new and
E. refused to get involved in the crisis.
12. In accordance with the passage, the recession in
the 1970s in the West ______.
A. did not have a long term effect on the economy.
B. affected really all sectors including that of
C. speeded up the rate of inflation to an alarming
D. was hardly felt in the world of literature.
E. caused the sudden decline of various spheres of
Generally educational processes involve not only
learning but teaching as well. There is however, no
logical connection in this case. Education can go on
without any teaching. We can say it was a "real
education" for someone to take a boat out on his
own, implying that he learnt something desirable
without anybody having been there to teach him the
lesson. There are many forms of learning that go on
without teaching, and 'educative' learning does not
mean that the learning must take place in a teaching
situation. It may be argued that most things are
learnt more rapidly and more reliably in a classroom
situation. But even so, learning is not dependent
13. As is emphasized in the passage, it is generally
assumed that ______.
A. schools are not important at all in the learning
B. teachers do not further take place in the
C. education means both learning and teaching.
D. people learn most effectively by themselves
E. a good education makes teaching a-priority.
14. The writer states that true education _______.
A. is what everybody desires to have.
B. can only be provided in a classroom.
C. results from the acquisition of all kind of
D. is an ideal which cannot be achieved in life .
E. can be acquired without the help of a teacher.
15. The writer confesses that a teacher may often
make the process of learning _____.
A. more interesting.
B. quicker and more dependable .
C. safer and more regular.
D. a purely formal affair.
E. too "educative" to be effective.
In many African and Latin American countries the
rate of population growth appears to be constant or
even rising, but in Asia there are signs that the
growth rate has peaked and is now declining. The
different experiences may reflect differences in
government policies: in 1980 a quarter of less
developed countries had no official family planning
programme. The success stories involve India, where
in 1980, 23 per cent of married women used
contraceptives and the birth rate fell from 4.4 to
3.6 per cent per annum between 1960 and 1980. The
successful cases show what can be done, but private
incentives and attitudes still favour large families
in many poor societies; so, simply providing
facilities for family planning may not be enough.
16. It is implied in the passage that, as regards
A. most less developed countries have adopted
policies against family planning
B. family planning has not yet received adequate
attention in the industrialized countries
C. India has taken no serious measures to check it
D. the case of Africa and Latin America is unlike
that of Asia
E. Africa is the only continent to show a remarkable
decline in the birth rate
17. In accordance with the passage, one reason why
family planning in many less developed countries has
failed, is that _____.
A. contraceptives have only been supplied to married
B. the use of contraceptives puts a strain on the
C. married women have not been taught how to use
D. governments have been unable to sponsor birth
E. people prefer to have large families
18. We can infer from the passage that the success
of a family planning policy _____ .
A. has already been demonstrated in many Latin
B. is always undermined by poverty and unemployment
C. depends to a large extent, on the attitudes of
the people themselves
D. was first observed in Africa and Asia
E. is indicated by a fall in the birth rate of at
least 3.6 per cent
National income per head is an indicator of the
standard of living. However, this measure is
necessarily a rough one. For instance, it cannot
take into account new and better products such as
television, man-made fibres, faster flight,
long-playing records or the lowly plastic bucket;
nor does it indicate changes in the distribution of
income between rich-and-poor; nor in the length of
the working week. Data of national income per head
may also conceal important changes in the "quality
of life" as for example, in out physical
environment. This is affected by such things are
traffic congestion, noise, water and air pollution.
19. It is stressed in the passage that the standard
of living in a country _______ .
A. bears no relationship to national income per
B. can be roughly understood from the amount of
national income per head.
C. is in no way related to the purchasing power of
D. has no effect on the environment.
E. is primarily based on the number of working hours
20. It is clear from the passage that, in assessing
the standard of living in a country ______ .
A. the quality of life should be taken into
B. the income of the rich is of major importance.
C. the state of the poor should be disregarded.
D. the prices of goods and services need to be
E. no importance should be attached to questions of
21. The passage is mainly about ______.
A. the relationship between the national economy and
B. the importance of manufactured goods in the
improvement of the standard of living.
C. the unreliability of national income per head as
the only indicator of the standard of living.
D. the need to adjust the distribution of income
between rich and poor
E. the difficulties of maintaining the standard of
living without harming the environment
Benjamin Britten (1913-76) did as much as anyone to
establish English music on the forefront of the
international stage. Much of his music seems to have
an immediate appeal to large audiences and
definitely his many stage works earned him a quite
exceptional prestige both at home and abroad. Peter
Grimes (1945), Bill Budd (1951). Gloriana (1953),
and A Midsummer Night's Dream (1960) all show his
mastery of stage technique and the first two are
also moving human documents. On a smaller scale he
has achieved as much with his chamber operas as such
as The Rape of Lucretia (1946), Albert Herring
(1947), The Turn of the Screw (1954). His operatic
output was crowned by Death in Venice (1973). If he
had written nothing else, these dramatic works would
have marked him out as a composer of outstanding
22. The writer implies that the reputation of
English music abroad _______.
A. is related to the piece of music in drama
B. rests solely on Britten's chamber operas
C. continued to rise up to the time of Britten
D. owes a great deal to Britten's achievements
E. has always been consistently high.
23. The writer thinks that, Britten's works Peter
Grimes and Billy Budd in particular ______.
A. can be regarded as being of minor interest
B. are lacking in artistic qualities
C. show the human condition in a most effective
D. have earned Britten international fame
E. demonstrate the decline of his creativity
24. It is inferred from the passage that Britten's
works ______ .
A. earned him a fortune in his life time
B. were popular for a comparatively short period of
C. consisted only of full-scale operatic works
D. are only appreciated by real music lovers
E. effectively combine music and drama