Many art museums and galleries and many individuals
in the art world faced financial problems in 1975 as
the effects of world recession deepened. On the
surface things seemed to continue as before, with
important exhibitions in major museums attracting
large crowds. But smaller galleries, and the artists
whose work was shown by their resourceful
proprietors, fared less well, and over the longer
term it is the work of young artists that determines
the course of art for the future.
1. The point made in the passage is that the
recession in the 1970s
A. forced many young artists to give up their
B. led to the immediate closure of several major
museums in the West
C. was one of the most serious in economic history
D. didn't at first appear to hit hard at the art
E. meant exhibitions were regarded as unnecessary
2. One can infer from the passage that if a
generation of young artists is lost ......
A. this would not have a damaging effect on art
museums and galleries even in the long run
B. the future development of art will be greatly
C. recession in the art market would not last very
D. smaller galleries would benefit from it
E. the organizing of exhibitions would be even more
3. According to the passage, the people in the art
world who were most strongly affected by the
A. were young artists and the owners of small
B. tried to balance their losses by buying up the
work of young artists
C. were the well established art dealers
D. decided to stop exhibitions altogether
E. resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting
large crowds to their galleries
Computers should never have acquired the exalted
status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as
they are, even the most advanced have less brain
power than a three-year-old. They do, however, score
on single-mindedness. The three-year-old uses his
brain not only to think but also to do tasks like
seeing, hearing and running about, which need rapid
and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions-
we too run on electricity. But the computer just
sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or
reorganizes the world banking system, which is very
much easier. That's why man's dream of robot
servants is still a long way off.
4. The main point made in the passage is that the
A. is much inferior to any known computer
B. is infinitely more complex and powerful than any
C. reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of
D. is not as complicated and mysterious as has
usually been taught.
E. has been entirely reproduced in computer form
5. It is explained in the passage that the
efficiency of the computer
A. will soon make it possible for the man to be
served by robots
B. depends on the speed with which the data are fed
C. can best be appreciated in the decision-making
D. is the result of its being concentrated on one
task at a time
E. depends upon sophisticated electro-mechanical
6. The author feels that the computers
A. are becoming unaffordable as they get more
B. have contributed immensely to the improvement of
C. have been unnecessarily overrated
D. will be a major force behind all future progress
E. are capable of doing all the tasks the human
brain performs even more efficiently
The dramatic growth of world's population in the
century has been on a scale without parallel in
human society. Most of this growth has occurred
since 1950 and is known as "population explosion".
Between 1950 and 1980 the world population increased
from 2.5 to over 4 billion and by the end of the
century, this figure will have risen to at least 6
billion. Growth of this size cannot continue
indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the
total population will level out at between 10 and 15
billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already
there are encouraging signs that the rate of
increase in many less developed countries is
beginning to slow down.
7. According to the passage, at no period in Human
history has there been
A. so much consensus among nations concerning the
population of the world.
B. a sharp decline in population like the one since
C. a universal fear about the future of man
D. as comprehensive a study of population problems
as the one envisaged now
E. a population explosion of the magnitude of the
one in this century
8. It is pointed out in the passage that the
increase in the world population
A. is a highly encouraging sign for the general
B. is expected to continue even faster until 2050
C. will not continue into the next century
D. has been going on noticeably since 1950
E. has been much faster in the industrialized
9. It has been forecast that, by the middle of the
A. various measures will have been taken to
encourage population growth
B. the population growth rate in less developed
countries will be much higher than that in previous
C. the world population will be stabilized at around
10 to 15 billion
D. the rate of increase will still be rising
E. the rate of population increase will have doubled
the 1950 rate
Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can
cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these
reach the environment in waste streams; however,
emission limits and environmental quality standards
can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released.
But some other substances cannot be controlled in
this way because they are released, not in
industrial waste streams, but through the use of
disposal of products which contain them. In many
cases these substances pose little or no threat if
the product containing them is used and disposed
properly. The right way to deal with them is usually
through controls over their supply, use and
10. According to the passage, the threat of certain
substances to the environment ....... .
A. is far less than that to man.
B. could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and
C. has been unnecessarily emphasized
D. has to date been completely ignored
E. can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste
11. The author points out that the danger posed to
man by many substances .....
A. is unrelated to environmental pollution
B. is even greater than generally admitted
C. continues to grow despite constant control of
D. is solely due to the use of industrial waste
E. arises from their misuse and wrong disposal
12. The passage is concerned with the question of
A. how the harmful effects of certain substances can
be brought under control
B. why industrial waste streams have caused so much
C. whether man-made substances or natural ones cause
D. what measures are to be taken against the supply
of dangerous substances
E. who is responsible for taking the required
In one century of strenuous research a huge amount
of source material about Michelangelo has been
collected, reviewed, edited including letters poems,
contracts, receipts, and biographies. Biographical
and artistic data have been checked and rechecked,
sometimes corroborating and sometimes correcting our
previous ideas, and an abundance of new facts has
been revealed. Long lost works have been
rediscovered and every single known piece has been
studied in its formal iconographic, genetic, and
functional aspects. The artist's character, his
daily habits, his working methods, his personal
attitudes, and his artistic and political opinions
have been traced as well as the peculiarities of the
people with whom he had contact. Thus modern history
of art has formed an image of Michelangelo that is
much nearer to truth than those presented by his
13. We learn from the passage that, over the past
hundred years ........
A. a vast amount of new facts concerning
Michelangelo have come to light.
B. the research carried out about Michelangelo has
proved inadequate and, in places, irrelevant.
C. scholars have concentrated solely upon
Michelangelo's artistic creativity
D. in spite of much research, little has been
learned about Michelangelo.
E. though many new biographies have been written
about Michelangelo, they are all far short of truth
14. It is clear from the passage that the source
material concerning Michelangelo ........
A. has shed light only on his daily routine life.
B. consists only of books written about him by his
C. has taken nearly a hundred years to be annotated
D. has not received adequate critical attention.
E. not only includes his letters, poems, and
biographies but also documents relating to his
commissions and sales.
15. In accordance with the passage, the new data
A. have led to similar studies about his
B. have in some instances contradicted the
traditional view of him.
C. have full confirmed the views expensed by his
D. have created a great deal of controversy among
E. have yet to be analyzed and collated.
The fact the brain is divided into a left and a
right half is not a new discovery. Once the skull is
removed, the division is clear to the naked eye, and
it is a common feature of brains throughout the
animal kingdom. What is interesting about this
division in man is that each half seems to have
developed specialized functions, the left side
appearing to be better at some tasks, and the right
side better at others. The most obvious difference
in functioning is that the left side of the brain
receives sensations from and controls the right side
of the body and vice versa. The reasons for this are
still unclear. Despite a number of interesting
theories, there is no obvious advantage in such a
16. As the writer stresses, it has long been known
A. damage to the left half of the brain produces far
more serious defects.
B. the human brain , unlike that of other animals,
has a very complicated structure.
C. the right side of the brain has the same
functions as the left side.
D. the left side of the brain works more efficiently
than the right.
E. in the animal world, brains consist of two
17. We can learn from the text that, in man, each
half of the brain.......
A. is characterized by a crossover of innumerable
B. functions in full harmony with the other in all
C. performs certain specialized tasks.
D. controls the corresponding side of the body.
E. can be removed without damage being caused to the
18. The passage is mainly about.......
A. the recent history of brain studies.
B. how the body is controlled by the brain
C. the reason why there is a crossover of nerves in
D. the division of the brain into two halves and the
way each half functions.
E. how the sensations of the body are transmitted to
For years the theory of higher education in the
United States operated something like this: men went
to university to get rich, and women went to
university to marry rich men. It was a wonderful
little set up, nearly mathematical in its precision.
To disturb it would have been to rock an American
institution. During the 60s though, this theory lost
much of its popularity. As the nation began to
recognize the folly of relegating women to a
secondary role, women soon joined men in what once
were male-only pursuits. This rebellious decade
pushed women toward independence, showed them their
potential and compelled them to take charge of their
lives. Many women took this opportunity. Since then
feminine autonomy has been the rule, not exception,
at least among university women.
19. In accordance with the passage, the view had
long been held in the States that..........
A. the independence of women would impair the
integrity of family life.
B. only rich men had the opportunity to have higher
C. the rights of women were first recognized at the
D. a woman's potential could be brought to the fore
only through education.
E. universities were the place where women found
20. The writer emphasizes that, from the 1960s
onwards, women in America ..........
A. became more and more dominated by men in their
B. began to assert themselves in society, both as
individuals and professionally.
C. became less and less interested in their fight
D. began to go to universities in much greater
E. became aware of the fact that the universities
were prejudiced against them.
21. It is clear from the passage that most American
women today .........
A. are obsessed with their inferior status in
B. are not content with the change in their lives.
C. regard marriage as outdated and potentially
D. claim and enjoy a position of full independence.
E. still prefer to play a secondary role in society.
The collection of foreign intelligence, which is the
pursuit of a special kind of information, is an
obligatory service for any government having even
the most elementary international associations.
Nations must devise a strategy to provide for both
their security and well-being. History teaches us
responsibility cannot be met without knowledge of
the political, economic and military capabilities
and intentions of other nations. Indeed, advance
knowledge of these matters, or its absence could
well settle the fate of a great nation, especially
in an era when a single nation or consortium of
nations is capable of smashing another society in a
single stroke, or of controlling it under the threat
of poised catastrophe. The well-being of any great
nation will depend on decisions taken by others,
which must be foreseen, correctly analyzed, and
22. As is obvious from the passage, a nation for its
own well-being even survival ........
A. needs to know what is going on in other countries
and what is being planned .
B. must have a good standing army to defend itself.
C. should be on good terms with several other
countries as a safeguard.
D. must be prepared to counteract any internal
E. should not put much faith in foreign intelligence
to maintain its security.
23. The writer stresses that, in our time, it is
A. a major concern in foreign intelligence to study
the political and economic developments in neighbour
B. usual for governments to rely more on military
strength than on foreign intelligence.
C. possible for one nation to be completely wiped
out by another or others
D. almost impossible to get reliable intelligence
about other nations
E. scarcely necessary to anticipate attack from,
consortium of nations.
24. According to the passage, foreign intelligence
is regarded as .........
A. the unfair pursuit of the data relating to the
military potential of another nation
B. essential for the economic well-being of a
C. clandestine interference in the affairs of
D. the acquirement of a particular type of
E. a series of strategies devised to counter any