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TEST – 33

Although rarely spoken about by society, child abuse is one of the nation's most pressing problems today. As population continues to grow, so does the number of unwanted and unplanned children. It is estimated that six or seven out of a hundred children will be maltreated or neglected. Child abuse can come in three forms: (1) passive cruelty in the neglect of children by an unloving or uneducated parent; (2) occasional cruelty in the momentary violent reaction of a frustrated or overburdened parent; and (3) consistent, deliberate cruelty in uncontrollable actions by mentally sick parent. Simple neglect is easiest to correct. Actual abuse on the spur of the moment is more serious, but still much less so than continual abuse due to mental illness.

1. The passage suggests that the problem of child abuse ....
A. is slowly being overcome
B. has been greatly overestimated
C. does not receive as much attention as it should
D. is confined to only a little over 10% of the population
E. has led to an increase in mental illness

2. The most serious type of child abuse .....
A. is that perpetuated wilfully by an unbalanced parent.
B. is also the type that can most easily be corrected
C. first occurred when parents had to work long hours and were under stress
D. is due to ignorance or lack of interest, and so is impossible to correct
E. can be reduced by family planning programmes

3. The passage points out that the parents of abused children .....
A. are often very well educated people
B. usually take pleasure in hurting their children
C. are never deliberately cruel
D. normally regret any pain they have caused
E. very often have social and mental problems

During 1974 the two major problems that has faced the industrially developed countries were an unprecedented rise in prices and a serious deterioration in the external payments position, both legacies of the quadrupling of oil prices at the end of the previous year." Most governments, therefore, were forced to adopt monetary and fiscal policies aimed at curbing inflation, and by the early 1975 the external payments position had improved some-what in most Western industrialized countries. These anti-inflationary policies, however, depressed the level of business activity.

4. The economic crisis of 1974 ...
A. had a serious and lasting impact on unemployment
B. grew even more serious in 1975 in all the Western industrialized societies
C. was a direct result of the sudden sharp increase in late 1973 of oil prices
D. was confined to underdeveloped countries
E. contributed to an increase in monetary transactions

5. In most countries efforts made in 1974 to curb inflation ....
A. led to an improvement in the situation within a year
B. increased unemployment and caused political instability
C. caused an even greater deficit in external payments
D. failed totally due to the ever increasing oil prices
E. received the full support of industrialists

6. The author argues that inflation in 1974 .......
A. was mishandled by a majority of governments
B. also showed itself clearly in the growing deficit in the balance of payments
C. hit developed countries more than underdeveloped countries
D. eventually brought about a business boom
E. finally did bring down the price of oil.

The great wave of international terrorism that first reached a climax in 1972 showed no signs of abating in 1975. Strictly speaking, the phenomenon was not new; what was new was its rapid growth in the 1970s, made possible by increasingly sophisticated technology. Some of this new technology consists of specialized equipment, such as miniaturized or remote-control detonating devices, hand-held rocket launchers, and the like, which make terrorism more lethal, more effective, and less risky for the terrorist. But even improvements in generally available technology are important. For example, self-dialling international telephone communications and jet travel facilitate conspiracies across national boundaries and the perpetration of political crimes by nationals of country in another. The growth of television has contributed to the easy dissemination of terrorist techniques, such as hijacking of aircraft and the kidnapping of diplomats or businessmen for ransom.

7. It is argued that.....
A. governments have not taken adequate measures to protect diplomats and businessmen.
B. owing to technological innovations terrorism has been on the decline since the early 1970.
C. among the methods resorted to by terrorists, kidnapping and hijacking are the most common.
D. the manufacture of sophisticated technological equipment should be under strict governmental control.
E. various advances in technology have contributed to the increase in terrorism through the world.

8. Among the terrorist activities mentioned in the passage is .....
A. drug-trafficking
B. smuggling
C. the taking of hostages
D. propaganda
E. infiltration

9. It is pointed out in the passage that .....
A. political crimes make up only a small part of terrorism
B. today terrorism is no longer confined to one country alone
C. because of more lethal weapons terrorists find themselves in greater danger
D. prior to the 1970s terrorism was unknown
E. improved communications have led to the capture of more

It is obvious that the purpose of education will determine the content of the curriculum, the methods employed, the kind of education given to children and young persons. This functional relationship is frequently overlooked. Until recently there were many educationalists who thought that education should be discussed without reference to the objectives and values of the community in which it was given. The number of such theorists lessens under the impact of modern conditions, but there still exist many who appear
to think that problems of the curriculum can be dealt with in this abstract manner.

10. It is now often, but not always, recognized that....
A. problems of the curriculum are largely theoretical
B. problems of the curriculum must be dealt with in terms of objectives
C. the contents of the curriculum should be determined by the community
D. more abstract matters should be included in the curriculum
E. there is very little connection between the purpose of education and the values of the community

11. The passage emphasizes that........
A. the methods employed in education has led to noticeable improvements in the curriculum
B. many education theorists have been attaching too much importance to modern conditions
C. one must keep the ends in mind when determining the means of education
D. in educational policy the needs of young people have been given undue consideration
E. the community feels it hasn't been adequately consulted in
educational matters

12. According to the passage, there has, in recent years, been .....
A. a noticeable return of traditional educational techniques
B. a growing discrepancy between educational policy and the requirements of the community
C. an unprecedented increase in the number of young people in need of education
D. a steady decrease in the theoretical approach to education
E. among the young, a more active interest in educational matters

From the point of view of the control of diseases, World War
II represented a transitional period for industrialized combatant countries. As far as infectious diseases are concerned, the five years of continual war and occupation had affected civilian populations in Europe surprisingly less than did warfare in previous conflicts. The most notable increases in disease levels were those of new case of tuberculosis, which rose steadily throughout Western Europe, and of reported cases of typhoid fever. Most seriously affected were displaced persons, encamped refugees and inmates of concentration camps. In marginally nourished and starving patients, typhus, dysentery, scarlet fever, and diphtheria caused sporadic outbreaks and many deaths.

13. It is emphasized in the passage that ....
A. many of the deaths could have been avoided through better health care
B. Western Europe was not exposed to any of the infectious diseases during the war
C. most of Western Europe was occupied for a large part of the war
D. refugees and the homeless were adequately taken care of during the war
E. such infectious diseases such as typhus and dysentery caused the loss of many lives among the undernourished.

14. The author explains that....
A. among the homeless, it was children who were most seriously affected
B. sanitary conditions in concentration camps were terrible
C. owing to malnutrition, there was an unprecedented outbreak of tuberculosis among the fighting men
D. due to the efficiency of health precautions, all the infectious diseases had only a marginal effect
E. during the Second World War, civilians were not affected by infectious diseases as much as it might have been expected

15. The experience of the Second World War....
A. showed how inhuman were the conditions in the concentration camps
B. encouraged industrialized countries to provide housing for the homeless
C. proved valuable as regards the control of diseases
D. has inspired many countries of Western Europe with the idea of a lasting peace.
E. has contributed to the rapid industrialization of the western world

Life, like all other processes that go on in material bodies, requires energy. It differs from some such processes in the way in which its energy is obtained and from all of them in the way in which its energy is directed. The energy of the process which goes on in a boiling kettle is imparted to it continually from without by the fire. The energy of the process which goes on in a clock is stored in it, but has been imparted to it by mechanical action from without, in the winding of the spring. But life differs from the other processes, and all processes that go on in lifeless things, in that its energy is liberated in such a way as to tend to the preservation and increase of the living being.

16. The writer points out that all processes, living or lifeless,.....
A. need energy
B. impart energy
C. depend on mechanical action
D. are wasteful of energy
E. have the same pattern

17. It is pointed out that every living process ....
A. uses the same amount of energy
B. is directed towards the maintenance of life
C. is aided by an outside source of energy
D. is capable of storing energy
E. resembles processes in lifeless things

18. The most distinctive feature of mechanical energy, as opposed to life energy, is that it .......
A. is always directed to the preservation of life
B. can be controlled
C. cannot be stored
D. is supplied from outside
E. is obtained from the same source

Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90% of Nigeria's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after 1973 following the fourfold increase in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Nigeria lost important income. Oil production peaked in 1974 when output reached 112 million tonnes.

19. It is pointed out in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973
A. had less effect on Nigeria's economy than might have been expected
B. contributed greatly to industrial development in Nigeria
C. coincided with a considerable fall in oil production
D. provided Nigeria with a high revenue well into the late 1980s
E. put a great deal of pressure on Nigeria's oil reserves

20. It is understood from the passage that only a fraction of Nigeria's exports
A. are goods other than crude oil
B. would be needed to support industrial development
C. were affected by the fall in oil prices in the 1980s
D. were oil-related
E. have benefited from price increases

21. According to the passage, so long as the current rate of oil production is maintained ……….
A. world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly
B. Nigeria's industrial development plans will soon be fully realized
C. Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000
D. Nigeria will continue to enjoy large revenues
E. the variety of goods exported from Nigeria will increase

Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some people often suppose. It usually passes with time - but the time can seem endless. Activities giving companionship and a new interest can help. But for the sufferer to talk, again and again, about the causes of the depression helps most. People with depression need to be listened to and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They may need professional counselling as well as the support of family and friends.

22. In overcoming depression, the support of friends and family …..
A. can best be directed into giving good advice
B. is the only solution
C. may cause more harm than good
D. never contributes to any improvement in the patient
E. is not always sufficient

23. The writer suggests that people with depression.
A. should not be allowed much social activity.
B. should rely solely on professional counselling
C. need more than anything else, someone to listen to them
D. ought to remain alienated from society for a long time
E. receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy

24. According to the passage some people
A. seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get over depression
B. suffer from depression over long periods of time
C. refuse to get professional counselling
D. suffering from depression have been cured through the good advise of friends
E. with depression don't want to talk about their problems


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