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TEST – 30

Skiing is a popular sport, enjoyed by people of all ages. The best skiers, that is, the professionals, have until recently been Europeans. The Austrians, the French, and the German have generally been the fastest in international competitions. Recently, however, skiers from other countries have also come to the fore and demonstrated their skills. As a result, interest in the sport has become worldwide, and this has led to a highly competitive ski industry.

1. It is clear from the text that the European countries .............
a. are determined to improve their skiing skills
b. are now losing their lead in skiing sports
c. will soon dominate the ski industry in the world
d. regard skiing as the world's most popular sport
e. regret having invested so heavily in the ski industry

2. The author emphasizes that the development of the ski industry in the world .............
a. owes little to the growing international interest in this sport
b. has been fastest in countries outside Europe
c. has been the result of the efforts made by the European professionals
d. has been to the benefit of the European countries
e. is due to the growing international popularity of skiing as a sport

3. According to the text, as a sport, skiing .............
a. arouses little interest outside Europe
b. is in the hands of professionals only
c. is not confined to any special age group
d. is rapidly becoming too expensive for most people
e. originally came into being in Austria

The Amazon basin is a huge area in Brazil. It has always attracted businessmen on account of its valuable and rich resources such as rubber, coffee and cocoa. However, it is not easy to make money by starting an enterprise there. As the Brazilians say, ''If you want to succeed, you must believe in the Amazon, and you must be young.'' many rich men, including Henry Zolan, have poured money into the area and gone away with nothing.

4. The author points out that many businessmen .............
a. have expected to make their fortune in the Amazon basin, but most of them have been disappointed
b. have invested heavily in the Amazon basin and made huge profits
c. have followed the example of Henry Ford and started an enterprise in the Amazon basin
d. have only been interested in importing rubber, coffee and cocoa from the Amazon basin
e. have followed the advice of the Brazilians and become rich

5. According to the text, there has been a great deal of economic interest in the Amazon basin .............
a. and the interest is still growing rapidly
b. even though Henry Ford invested very little money there
c. but very few people have actually invested money there
d. since many investors have lost money in the region
e. because the region has a wealth of raw materials

6. One can understand from the text that the Amazon basin .............
a. is producing less and less in the way of raw materials
b. still remains a challenge to businessmen and does not give easy profits
c. is rich in rubber, coffee and cocoa, but in nothing else at all
d. is fast becoming one of the world's major industrial regions
e. no longer welcomes foreign investments

As industrial developments have distorted production methods, types of automatic equipment and varieties of outputs, society has begun to be familiar with economic progress involving not only changes in machinery but also in man-not only expenditures on equipment but also on people. Asset in people makes it possible to take advantage of technical progress as well as to keep on that progress. Upgrading in health makes asset in education more satisfying by extending life expectations. Asset in education expands and extends knowledge, causing advances that raise productivity and improve health.

7. To the author, asset in education ....................... .
a. has a direct impact on production techniques
b. will contribute positively to human progress
c. has little significance for economic progress
d. is far more important than investment in health
e. has led to certain specific technological changes

8. The passage is mainly dealing with ........................ .
a. the question of economic progress and productivity
b. the necessity of improvement in health services
c. long term benefits of investment in education
d. the impact of economy in life expectancy
e. new education policies to meet technological needs

9. According to the passage, ........................ .
a. questions of increased output must be given priority
b. economic progress depends largely on technological developments
c. expenditures should be evenly distributed among the sector
d. improvements in the health services are urgently required
e. society was slow to realize the need to invest in man

Both as a line of work and as a discipline, economics lost substantial status during the recession of 1984-85. The crisis that seized the western developed countries, including US, was of a character not to be found in economics textbooks: rate of inflation exceeding 20% a year attached with diminishing production and high rates of unemployment. Up till now, peacetime price rises had been linked with high employment and an overactive economy, while high rates of unemployment went with decline or misery. The next combination was rightly called stagflation.

10. According to the passage, the term stagflation means ........................ .
a. the combination of high inflation and economic decline
b. high unemployment in spite of high levels of production
c. a decrease in the rates of inflation
d. inflation in an overactive economy
e. high levels of peacetime inflation

11. It is said in the text that the economic crisis of the mid-1980's ........................ .
a. followed the same pattern as earlier economic crisis
b. had little effect on the industry of developed countries
c. caused people to lose faith in economics
d. caused the economy to be overactive
e. was characterized only by high inflation and low production

12. The main idea stressed in the passage is ........................ .
a. the growing unpopularity of economics as a science
b. the relationship between unemployment and recession
c. the industrial decline of US and some Western countries
d. the unusual nature and the extensive effects of the economic crisis of the 1980's
e. how to combat high inflation and unemployment

Political crime is different from everyday crime only in the motivation of the offender. A bank robbery, a theft, drug smuggling, kidnapping, or murder is no more a crime for being politically motivated. In this perspective, terrorism is defined as ''aggravated aggression for political ends''; this differentiates terrorism both from vandalism and from crimes of violence in which no political motivation is detected. Political crime is therefore a wider term than terrorism, which is an acute form of it. The connection between the two is as between the whole and the part.

13. It is argued in the passage that ........................ .
a. terrorism rarely stems from political considerations
b. a bank robbery cannot be politically motivated
c. vandalism and political crime are one and the same thing
d. there is no relationship between political crime and terrorism
e. a crime is still a crime even though it may be politically motivated

14. The writer argues that a crime is political ................. .
a. so long as it is committed against politicians
b. if it is related to vandalism
c. if violence is involved
d. only when the end is political
e. when drug-running and kidnapping are excluded

15. A title for this passage could be ........................ .
a. Forms of Political Crime
b. Political Crime and Terrorism
c. Illegal Activities
d. Avoidance of Political Crime
e. The Spread of Terrorism

All of us would agree that we know a number of different things. If challenged to give a catalogue of what you know, you might say, for example, that you know the Italian and French languages, how to swim, how to drive a bus, how to analyze a chemical substance, that you know some history and some geography, that you know a number of different people, and so on. The list even in general terms like this would be a very long one, and it would not be possible, for practical purposes, to set out such a catalogue in detail. But one thing is obvious from the few examples I have given; the word ''know'' is commonly used in many different senses.

16. The key point of the passage is ........................ .
a. that the frontiers of knowledge cannot be defined
b. to make people realize how little they know
c. to demonstrate how variable are the meanings of the word ''know''
d. whether it is desirable to know everything
e. that knowledge can be acquired from different sources

17. It is shown in the text that ........................ .
a. the cataloguing of knowledge is deceptive
b. most people's knowledge is one-sided
c. people have more theoretical than practical knowledge
d. theoretical knowledge is underestimated
e. people are confident they know a great many things

18. A suitable title for this text could be ........................ .
a. Practical Knowledge
b. Catalogues of knowledge
c. Learning Foreign Languages
d. Defining the Word ''know''
e. Common Terminology

Secularization as it has developed since the Middle Ages has consisted in substituting for supernatural and theological explanations naturalistic and reasonable ones. This change is one of the most profound affecting mankind and forms the basis of modern democratic government and of our scientific technological age. In a society based on divine right of kings there could be no genuinely democratic government in the modern sense. Democracy is built on the plan that the individual has a right to judge political issues for himself.

19. According to the text, with the rise of democracy ........................ .
a. supernatural ideas have given way to theological ones
b. scientific and technological progress has been neglected
c. secularization has lost its traditional meaning
d. the individual has lost many of his former rights
e. the traditional concept of the ''divine rights of kings'' has vanished

20. It is argued that the process of secularization ........................ .
a. has had no impact on the concept of monarchy
b. goes back to pre-medieval times
c. has led to systems of democratic government
d. has no relevance to the exercise of individual rights
e. has failed to overcome superstition and magic

21. In the development of modern society ........................ .
a. medieval institutions have not been neglected
b. democracy has been of little significance
c. technological supremacy has been the ultimate aim
d. the impact of secularization has been of primary importance
e. individual rights have been curtailed

The atom bomb and still more the hydrogen bomb have caused new fears, involving new doubts as to the effects of science on human life. Some eminent authorities, including Einstein, have pointed out that there is a danger of extinction of all life on Earth. I do not myself think that this will happen in the next war, but I think it may well happen in the next one but , if that is allowed to occur. If this expectation is correct, we have to choose within the next fifty years or so, between two alternatives. Either we must allow the human race to exterminate itself, or we must forgo certain liberties which are very dear to us.

22. It is stated that ........................ .
a. the scientist should ignore moral issues
b. Einstein seldom agreed with other scientists as regards the value of human life
c. science is not always beneficial to mankind
d. personal liberties are the things we should fight for
e. scientists will prevent any further war

23. The writer believes that the only way to avoid war ........................ .
a. cannot be found within the next half century
b. is to give up certain much loved liberties
c. is to submit everything to arbitration
d. is by a voluntary lowering of economic standards
e. is by fairly facing the problems of all nations

24. A suitable title for this text could be ........................ .
a. What Choice to Make?
b. Another Nuclear War
c. Einstein and His Theories
d. The Extermination of Mankind
e. How to Safeguard Liberties


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