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TEST – 26

Nobody knows when fiction started. Perhaps, the first story-teller was a prehistoric mother trying to explain the world to her children. Or maybe it was a hunter telling about hi adventures around the camp fire. Who can till? What we do know, though, is that story- telling was a purely oral activity around 800 BC. Myths and tales were passed down by word of mouth and had to be memorized by each new generation of story-tellers. This oral tradition only examples of Homer, a blind professional story-teller, who lived in the eighth century BC.

1. It is stressed in the passage that story-telling.................
a) was first introduced by Homer in ancient times
b) possibly began in prehistoric times
c) began as a written activity
d) became less and less popular during the 8* century BC.
e) Became far more popular with the invention of writing

2. It is very clear from the passage that the Homeric epics...................
a) were among the first stories to be written down
b)consisted mainly of myths and other tales
c)are the first examples of prehistoric tales and myths
d) were not the best of their kind in the 8th century BC.
e) Have often been imitated successfully in later centuries

3. We can infer from the passage that, throughout the oral tradition, professional story-tellers...............
a) were much respected in primitive societies
b) depended on Homer for their stories
c) were skilful at creating new stories
d) collected the first stories going back to prehistoric times
e) used to learn myths and tales by heart

The printing press was invented by Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, in Germany. He built and operated the printing press with moveable metal letters. Actually, simple printing methods had existed for centuries, but they had to be done by hand and took a long time. What made Gutenberg's press so different was that the individual letters themselves could swiftly and easily be moved to create different pages. This made it possible to print entire books more cheaply and more rapidly than ever before.

4. It is emphasized in the passage that the basic new feature of Gutenberg's printing press..............
a) was that all the pages of a boo were printed at the same time
b) was that it could easily be operated by unskilled workmen
c) was that the printing of books was less costly although it took a long time to do
d) was the use of metal letters that could be moved into different positions
e) made it possible to print books without any error at all

5. One can infer from the passage that actually, the history of printing..................
a) first begins with Gutenberg's invention
b) has always been associated with Germany
c) can be traced back well before the time of Gutenberg
d) runs parallel to the history of books
e) gives less importance to Gutenberg's invention than it deserves

6. It can be understood from the passage that the printing technique which was introduced by Gutenberg .
a) made printing more complicated and time-consuming
b) was not as important as it has often been thought
c) was not used outside Germany for a long time
d) speeded up the printing of books
e) adopted the metal letters system of earlier methods

In many countries in the process of industrialization, overcrowded cities present a main problem. The overpopulation of towns is generally caused by the drift of large numbers of people from the rural areas. The only long-term solution is to make life in the rural areas more attractive, which would encourage people to stay there. This could be achieved by providing incentives for people to go and work in the villages. Furthermore, facilities in the rural areas, such as transport, health and education services, should be improved.

7. According to the passage, one important outcome of industrialization has been.......
a) a massive migration from the countryside to cities
b) a general improvement in the quality of urban life
c) the decline of health services in cities
d) the emergence of new cities throughout the country
e) an overall increase in the population of the country

8. The author stresses that one way in which rural life might be made more attractive
a) has already been tried; namely improved education services
b) would be to set up better medical facilities
c) has been suggested by those migrating to the towns
d) has been regarded by some as a threat to the progress of industrialization
e) is likely to prove unpopular among city-dwellers

9. The writer suggests that, so as to solve the problem of overcrowding in cities,
a) health an education services in the cities have to be modernized
b) transport facilities have to be renewed completely
c) measures should be taken to make the city environment more attractive
d) the number of those migrating to the cities should be restricted
e) living conditions in the countryside need to be made better and more agreeable

The famous English detective Tom Wilkinson was actually a great lover of music; he often played the violin and even composed some music. He would sometimes spend a whole afternoon listening to music, and this would make him extremely happy. On such occasions he grew gentle and dreamy, quite unlike the sharp, clever and rather frightening detective that everybody knew him to be. But such a mood rarely lasted long; and when it left him he was more alert and businesslike than ever.

10. The writer describes a side of Detective Wilkinson's character which................
a) he thinks is unsuitable for a detective.
b) is referred to as a major defect.
c) was little known by the general public.
d) had a bad effect upon his work.
e) eventually led to his downfall.

11. The writer points out that, after a quiet afternoon spent in listening to music, Wilkinson
a) went back to his detective work with greater efficiency.
b) would lose interest in his professional work.
c) found himself behaving in an aggressive manner.
d) wished he didn't have to work as a detective.
e) would take up his violin and play some of his own works.

12. We can understand from the passage that Wilkinson was generally regarded as o
a) being rather unreliable as a detective
b) a man of many and varied talents
c) rather a cruel person, even a wicked one
d) an extremely intelligent detective, and one to be feared
e) someone whose behaviour was disliked by many people.

During the World War, Faye Googman showed extraordinary qualities of determination and organizing ability. In the English hospital where she worked, conditions at first were terrible; dirt and disease probably caused more deaths among the soldiers than did the wounds received-in battle. Still, under these circumstances, Faye Goodman gradually built up a highly disciplined nursing staff and, together with more adequate medical supplies, she was able to improve conditions and be of real service to the soldiers. However, the work was hard, and, as a result, her own health suffered.

13. One important point the passage makes is that Faye Goodman ....................
a) would have been more efficient if she had a more qualified nursing staff
b) was not liked by the nursing staff because of her harsh discipline
c) hated the terrible conditions she was working in and wanted to get away
d) failed to improve conditions in the hospital as she herself had poor health
e) overcame, with great efficiency, the problems she faced in a military hospital

14. It is clear from the passage that because Faye Goodman was a determined person, with a gift form organising, she....................
a) volunteered to serve in the Crimean War
b) was widely criticised by her staff
c) did little nursing herself
d) was able to succeed in her work
e) was selected by the army to work as a nurse in the hospital

15. As the writer emphasizes in the passage, conditions in the military hospital were, at the beginning, so bad that............
a) they accounted for more deaths among the soldiers than the war itself
b) little could be done to improve them
c) Florence Nightingale felt she had little chance of success
d) many of the nursing staff fell ill
e) medical supplies soon ran out

Skiing is a popular sport, enjoyed by people of all ages. The best skiers, that is, the professionals, have recently been Europeans. The Austrians, the Norwegians and the Italians have generally been the fastest in international competitions: recently, however, skiers from other countries have also come to the fore and demonstrated their skills. As a result, interest in the sport has become worldwide, and this has led to a highly competitive ski industry.

16. It is shown from the passage that the European countries.....................
a) are determined to improve their skiing skills
b) are now losing their lead in skiing sports
c) will soon dominate the ski industry in the world
d) regard skiing as the world's most popular sport
e) regret having invested so heavily in the ski industry7

17. The passage writer emphasizes that the development of the ski industry in the world...............
a) owes little to the growing international interest in this sport
b) has been fastest in countries outside Europe
c) has been the result of the efforts made by the European professionals
d) has been to the benefit of the European countries
e) is due to the growing international popularity of skiing as a sport

18. According to the text, as a sport, skiing......................
a) arouses little interest outside Europe
b) is in the hands of professionals only
c) is not confined to any special age group
d) is rapidly becoming too expensive for most people
e) originally came into being in Austria

The Amazon basin is a huge area in Brazil. It has always attracted businessmen on account of its valuable and rich resources such as rubber, coffee and cocoa. However, it not easy to make money by starting an enterprise there. As the Brazilians say, "If you want to succeed, you must believe in the Amazon, and you must be young." Many rich men, including Hardy Folk, have poured money into the area and gone away with nothing.

19. The writer points out that many businessmen... ..................
a) have expected to make their fortune in the Amazon basin, but most of them have been disappointed
b) have invested heavily in the Amazon basin and made huge profits
c) have followed the example of Hardy Folk and started an enterprise in the Amaze; basin.
d) have only been interested in importing rubber, coffee and cocoa from the Amaze basin.
e) have followed the advice of the Brazilians and became rich

20. According to the passage, there has been a great deal of economic interest in the Amazon basin................... .
a) and the interest is still growing rapidly
b) even though Hardy Folk invested very little money there
c) but very few people have actually invested money there
d) since many investors have lost money in the region
e) because the region has a wealth of raw materials

21. One can understand from the passage that the Amazon basin................... .
a) is producing less and less in the way of raw materials
b) still remains a challenge to businessmen and does not give any profits
c) is rich in rubber, coffee and cocoa, but in nothing else at all
d) is fast becoming one of the world's major industrial areas
e) no longer welcomes foreign investments

Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 95% of Nigeria's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after 1973 following the fourfold increase, in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Nigeria lost important income. Oil production peaked in 1974 when output reached 112 million tones.

22. It is emphasized in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 ........ .
a. had less effect on Nigeria's economy than might have been expected
b. contributed greatly to industrial development in Nigeria
c. coincided with a considerable fall in oil production
d. provided Nigeria with a high revenue well into the late 1980s
e. put a great deal of pressure on Nigeria's oil reserves

23. It is clearly understood from the given passage that only a fraction of Nigeria's exports ......... .
a. are goods other than crude oil
b. would be needed to support industrial development
c. were affected by the fail in oil prices in the 1980s
d. were oil-related
e. have benefited from price increases

24. The passage says that ,as long as the current rate of oil production is maintained ............. .
a. world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly
b. Nigeria's industrial development plans will soon be fully realized
c. Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000
d. Nigeria will continue to enjoy large revenues
e. the variety of goods exported from Nigeria will increase


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