The paradox of the American gun culture is that it
is undermining the very values it was meant to
protect. Do you remember Franklin Roosevelt's famous
"Four Freedoms"? These were what America ostensibly
fought World War II over. One of them was "freedom
from fear." That battle has
been lost. Even outside main cities, the US is now a
land of real freedom only during daylight. We have
reached a point in recent years where people believe
they have to constantly peer over their shoulders as
if being pursued by the KGB. This routine fear is
now so much part of life in the US that Americans
have begun to take it for granted. We instinctively
avoid large sections of cities, using mental maps in
our maps in our heads that are unavailable to
tourists. Last year I was in Japan. It is a worse
place to live than the US in many respects. But it
is possible to walk in a park in Tokyo at midnight
fearlessly just as it was in America as recently as
the 1950s. This freedom felt strange to me, as if a
state of fear about physical safety is normal. And
it is. Barricading oneself at home all night is now
natural; wandering around freely and alone - once
the quintessential American experience - is now
1. What has been lost is...................
a) The arms that Americans possessed to fight in
World War II.
b) The battle for freedom from fear.
c) Four freedoms touched on in Franklin Roosevelt's
d) World War II.
e) A small skirmish in the USA.
2. In many American cities...................
a) People feel free to walk outside only after dark.
b) Those arming themselves for self-defence now
attack others in daylight.
c) Guns are waning in value.
d) 0nly during daylight is it probable to talk of
real freedom to be out.
e) The battle for liberty from foreign rule has been
3. Tourists arc more in danger
a) they do not have any maps to know their way.
b) maps that can be owned by Americans are
inaccessible to tourists.
c) maps showing larger parts of cities are usually
unavailable to tourists.
d) mental maps introduced lately to help people that
walk out after the dark falls.
e) they lack Americans' instinctive awareness of
which parts of cities are more dangerous.
People struggling against starvation, ignorance and
disease value political ideology only to the extent
that it affects their own desperate condition.
Similarly, the evils of the drug trade are relative.
Peasants, struggling to put food on the table for
their children, see income from coca leaf production
as their salvation. Narco traffickers, taking
advantage of the desperation of poverty and the
seemingly insatiable North American demand for
drugs, often provide a welcome means of economic
stability for those unfortunates for whom there are
few alternatives. Many people in Latin America,
actually, argue passionately that it is far more
preferable to send cocaine north for the gringos
than to allow their own children to starve. The
consequences, they say with a shrug, are a North
4. It is stressed in the passage
a) coca, from which cocaine is produced, is grown by
North Americans for illegal income as they are
b) Latin Americans provide an indispensable market
for narcotraffickers as they would do anything to
save their children from starvation.
c) political ideology is not valued by those
struggling against starvation, ignorance and disease
unless it affects their economic deprivation
d) only for a small amount of money they earn by
growing coca, North Americans cause the death of
many people in the North America.
e) it is by North Americans that the gringos were
accustomed to drug use.
5. Coca farmers deny any responsibility for probable
bad results of this trade.....................
a) saying reluctantly that it is the problem of the
b) arguing anxiously that it is Latin America's
c) with a gesture of dismissal.
d) placing the blame on the regional government.
e) with a gesture suggesting they do not care about
6. A stable amount of money earnable by production
of coca is regarded by Latin Americans in miserable
a) a solution to develop their country economically.
b) the only way for saving their children from dying
c) the unique solution to the poverty all over the
d) salvation from ignorance and disease.
e) something which can be done to a certain extent.
The problems which the Third World will experience
in the coming decades are immense. Many nations
there will continue to face economic stagnation
fuelled by weak world commodity prices, a shortage
of investment capital, debt, ecological decay,
underdeveloped infrastructure, population pressure
and the absence of available and appropriate
technology. The movement toward democracy which
exploded in the 1980s will experience fits and
starts as sectarian, military involvement in
politics and international tensions will hinder
political reforms. Uneven economic development and
stifled political reform, combined with
ever-increasing public demands, will set the stage
for violent conflict.
7....................is not estimated to cause
a) Lowering of the prices of products.
b) The shortage of money for investment.
c) Environmental betterment.
e) Unavailability of technology.
8. What characterises Third World Countries
a) economic insufficiency.
b) political inconsistency.
c) technological backwardness.
d) rising public demands.
e) both economic and political inconsistency.
9. In the process of democratisation, administrative
irregularities will be experienced on account
a) slowed political reforms.
b) economic sectors and the army involvement in
c) international problems.
d) the involvement of the military and religious
groups in politics.
e) violent debates.
Although they are obviously different in length, the
paragraph and the essay have structural
similarities. For instance, the paragraph is
introduced by a topic sentence controlling the whole
paragraph. In the essay, the first paragraph
provides introductory material and reflects the
topic focus. The other thing is that the sentences
in the body of a paragraph develop its introductory
sentence. Likewise, the framework of the essay
consists of a number of paragraphs that expand and
support the ideas presented in the
introductory paragraph. Lastly, a restatement or
observation of conclusive nature ends the paragraph.
The essay, too, has an ending paragraph inclusive of
a logically and psychologically satisfying
10. The major idea expressed in the passage
a) both the essay and each paragraph have
introductory sentences to which the other sentences
b) the body of an essay is structurally different
from that of a paragraph.
c) generally the first sentence of the essay
controls all the sentences in it as that of the
d) despite their obvious dissimilarities in length,
the essay and the paragraph structurally similar.
e) each paragraph is an essay in itself because of
so many similarities.
11. It would be wrong to say...................
a) a simple scanning of the first paragraph of an
essay gives the reader enough information about what
it is all about.
b) the first paragraph of an essay is usually a
simple collection of the controlling ideas of its
c) in an essay each paragraph is written
independently of the introductory paragraph.
d) it is usual in each essay that an ending
paragraph brings ideas to a reasonably and
psychologically satisfactory completion.
e) conclusive statements are covered in the initial
12. In a good paragraph ---
a) interconnectedness of ideas is not so important
as in the whole essay.
b) no further sentence after the introductory
sentence should remind the reader of the topic
c) rather than concise and expressive sentences,
many details supportive of the controlling idea may
be written irrespective of the length.
d) any sentence written after the introductory
sentence should be relevant to it.
e) coherence is not so significant as cohesion in
For terrorists that reckon the U.K among their
enemies, two options are possible. One is to strike
targets within Britain. For various reasons,
covering meticulously prepared counterterrorist
measures enforced by government agencies, this is
difficult. The other option is to increase the level
of destruction. It is obvious that chemical,
biological and eventually nuclear weapons provide
the greatest opportunities. The capability is there,
even in the nuclear arena where terrorists can
substitute technologically simple, deliberate atomic
pollution for technologically more complicated
atomic weapons. The absence of long-range delivery
systems for weapons of mass destruction, which
limits their utility for non superpowers, is not a
factor for terrorists. An immobile, warehouse-size
nuclear device would be acceptable to them.
13. The utility of weapons of mass destruction for
technologically undeveloped nations is limited
a) they have no technology to manufacture such
b) they lack the technology to launch nuclear mass
destructive missiles to a long distance.
c) the absence of long-range launching systems is
not a factor for such non superpowers.
d) such non superpowers are underdeveloped nations
that are remote to the U.K. to pose a threat.
e) of the lack of immobile warehouses from which to
14. It can be concluded from the passage
a) terrorists can possibly replace technologically
complicated atomic explosions with less complex,
deliberate atomic pollution.
b) terrorists cannot pose a threat to the U.K. since
their lack of long-range delivery systems limits the
utility of weapons of mass destruction.
c) an unmoving target of the size of a warehouse
would satisfy terrorists if they could destroy it
d) among the various reasons for the first option
not to materialise is the
governmental enforcement of measures against the
sale of destructive materials to terrorist.
e) in spite of the fact that the first option is
possible to realise the second one is unquestionably
15. The first option mentioned is nearly impossible
due to the fact that.....................
a) the level of destruction of the weapons that
terrorists often use is too low
b) terrorist groups have no weapons available
C) carefully taken anti-terrorist measures make it
difficult to materialise
d) terrorists reckon the U.K. among their enemies
e) the government forces counterterrorist agencies
to work unwillingly enough
Almost totally devoid of natural resources of
commercial value, Israel in its early years focused
on agricultural production. Chemical manufacturing,
diamond cutting and polishing, and developing high
technology products with commercial and military
applications have surpassed agriculture as the most
important areas of Israel's modern economy. One out
of four Israeli workers today is employed directly
or indirectly by the arms industry. Even the
Kibbutz, the socialist agricultural co-operatives
which were the most prominent expression of the
Jews' "Return to the land," now earn more of their
income through manufacturing than agricultural
16. The most appropriate conclusion to be drawn from
the passage is that.....................
a) If Israel had enough natural resources for
commercial production, it would not concentrate on
b) Israel has developed commercially as well as
agriculturally and politically.
c) Israel's recent concentration on the
manufacturing of commercial products has led to
better food production methods.
d) Since the Jews gathered in Israel, they have
tried to build a commercially perfect country.
e) Even though the major industry of Israel in its
early years was agriculture, it is commercially
developed enough now.
17. It seems that the most significant constituent
of Israel's modern economy is -
a) agricultural production
b) chemical manufacturing
c) agricultural co-operatives
d) the arms industry
e) commercial retrogression
18. The arms industry...................
a) employs twenty-five percent of all Israeli
b) is to accuse of stagnation in agricultural
c) is devoid of natural resources of commercial
d) has surpassed chemical manufacturing
e) is the largest agricultural co-operative
Military research has of course brought about the
development of beneficial by-products, such as
stronger plastics and metals, sophisticated
electronics and other invaluable technical
advancements which are used in many commercial
products today. But non military scientific research
and advance only for the sake of knowledge of man's
world has been pitifully underfinanced. As a
response to threats that may be developed by other
nations, military programs have been absorbing a
great share of government funds to expand U.S.
technology as rapidly as possible. With
the growing appetite of military priorities., few
sources of research funding are left that are not
being allocated to the protection of national
19. Non-military researches have been underfinanced
a) for the sake of knowledge of man's world.
b) owing to the growing appetite of military
officers for money.
c) for the reason that there is no money for
d) to prepare militarily for any threat which might
be posed by other nations.
e) scientific researches are not so necessary as
20. According to the passage it is wrong to say
a) the allocation of too much money to military
research is criticised, but it is undeniable that it
sometimes helps non-military scientific research
with its common findings.
b) non-military scientific researches have to be
abandoned since military ones
also lead to technically valuable developments.
c) such funds have been allocated to military
research under the pretext of protecting the
d) that military research has been given priority in
using government funds on account of military
threats that might be developed by other nations.
e) non-military researches are directed towards
getting to know more about man's world.
21. It is stressed in the passage
a) only a little is allocated to protecting national
b) the USA doesn't need any non-military research
c) because of the growing appetite of military
officers, there is no money left in the national
d) research funds are no more allocated to security
e) the amount reserved for the maintenance of
national security is surprisingly big
An English company called Katcha Products has
devised a humane and environmentally friendly way to
dispose of spiders, flies and wasps. Guaranteed not
to harm the insect, the trap is composed of a long
handle with a transparent pyramidal chamber at one
end. The user allows the insect to land, then places
the chamber over the insect. Twisting the handle
causes a gravity-controlled shutter to close,
trapping the insect inside. To release the bug, the
user holds the trap horizontally and twists the
shutter open. The trap may also be used by students
and entomologists who wish to catch insects in the
field for later examination.
22. The device introduced by the English company
a) kills the insect unmercifully.
b) is for non-brutal seizure of pests.
c) first traps the pest inside and releases it a
short time later.
d) is to be used to get rid of spiders mercifully,
e) is merely for scientific researched.
23. If the trap is taken from the ground without the
handle being twisted,
a) the bug inside will die.
b) nothing occurs.
c) the insect inside will be free again.
d) the shutter will remain unopened.
e) the shutter will close tight trapping the bug
24. The device is invaluable for entomologists
a) they want to seize insects intact in order that
they can be examined later.
b) it is transparent enough for the bug inside to be
scientifically examined without taking it out.
c) the bug flies away when it is taken from the
d) it destroys the environment.
e) it traps the insect in an opaque chamber.