The increasingly sophisticated understanding of
counterinsurgency led to an significant discovery
that could be applied with success to other forms of
conflict. The political dominance of internal wars
is also to be found in some international conflicts.
The evidence for this is empirical, no satisfactory
general theory has yet been formulated. It is
difficult to put a date on this insight, but some of
the examples of recent history are illustrative. The
U.S bombing of Libya on. 14 April 1986 is one. That
mission was conducted for political and
psychological purposes. It was not a simple military
operation, but delivered a loud message that
state-sponsored terrorism would not go unpunished.
Military targets were hit, but their destruction was
not the driving purpose. Rules of engagement were
strict; there were to be no attacks on targets of
opportunity. Despite precautions, unintentional
damage to other than selected targets occurred.
1. The discovery attained after the increasingly
better understanding of counterinsurgency
a) that the driving force behind both internal and
some international conflicts is political.
b) that though national conflicts are politically
motivated, international ones involve military
c) that people understand increasingly better that
insurgency is directed towards the disestablishment
of the governing bodies of countries.
d) also applicable with success to internal wars.
e) that insurgencies are sometimes against other
nations rather than the ruling power.
2. According to the paragraph........
a) Libya's bombardment by the U.S. aircraft is a
perfect example only for the psychological purposes
of international conflicts.
b) some examples of recent history provide proof for
the discovery that some international conflicts are
also politically motivated.
c) rather than targets of opportunity, military
targets were destroyed for economic ends.
d) in spite of the measures taken to destroy targets
as well as the predetermined ones, some
unintentional damage can not be said to have been
e) the mission of bombing Libya was carried out as a
response to Libya's enmity toward to the U.S.A.
3. The message intended to deliver by the
a) that any insurgency against the Libyan state
would not be allowed.
b) so effective that states backing up terrorists
financially stopped doing this.
c) that the U.S. would no more tolerate any
state-supported terrorism, particularly if it harms
d) to put an end to international terrorist
activities conducted by religious factions.
e) that any target in a country supporting terrorism
would be attacked for punishment.
Philosophy teaches us to feel uncertain about the
things which seem to us self-evident. Propaganda, on
the other hand, teaches us to accept as self-
evident matters about which it would be reasonable
to suspend our judgement or to feel doubt. The
propagandist must therefore be consistently
dogmatic. All his statements are made without
qualification. There are no greys in his picture of
the world; everything is either diabolically black
or celestially white. He must never admit that he
may be wrong or that people with a different point
of view might be even partially right. Opponents
ought to be argued with; they should be attacked,
shouted down, or if they become too much of a
4.The distinction between philosophy and propaganda
a) self-evident matters are readily refused by the
propagandist but not by the philosopher.
b) philosophy stimulates people to give any matter
a-second thought prior to accepting it as true,
whereas propaganda teaches us to accept even
c) while philosophy teaches us to doubtfully judge
even matters seeming to be obviously true,
propaganda tries to get us to accept even
unreasonable things as true.
d) we must suspend our judgement of the
propagandist's ideas while the philosopher's are
e) the truth of philosophy is unquestionable but the
other is dubious.
5. It can be inferred from the statements of the
a) a good propagandist does not turn a deaf ear to
other people's ideas.
b) everything is either good or bad and there is no
middle way between the bad and the good.
c) the propagandist is not uncompromising at all
times; there are times when he agrees with arguments
d) no controversial thought that might be expressed
by others is disregarded by him.
e)he does not demand complete acceptance of his
6.According to the propagandist, when a rival
a) he can be argued with over controversial points.
b) he is tolerable as long as he does not attack.
c) nothing is done because this is a must for
d) he ought to be done away with.
e) he ought to be outtalked as any dissident idea
gains root among the listeners.
As for the nervous system, it is one of the most
complicated and significant systems in human body.
The controlling units of the system are located in
the brain, out of which messages are sent that
activate the other systems. Like a computer internet
system, every inch of the body is connected to the
brain with nerves. They direct muscular movements of
the body. They tell the body parts when and how to
move. They also direct cognitive processes like
learning and not forgetting a language. Without the
central nervous system it would be impossible to
see, hear and feel something. For instance, as
written of earlier in the previous paragraph,
especially muscular system would not work properly.
How conduction of messages carried out along these
natural wires is illustrated below.
7. The passage which this paragraph is taken from is
a) the muscular system
b) the respiratory system
c) the nervous system
d) neurological findings
e) systems in the body
8. The paragraph that follows this one is possibly
a) the nerves which direct the respiratory system.
b) the way messages which control muscular movements
c) how the nervous system works
d) there is no paragraph after it
e) movements of neurones in the brain
9. It is revealed in the passage
a) efficient function of the muscular system depends
on the effectiveness of the nervous system.
b) each system in the body has its own controlling
c) not only muscular movements but also cognitive
processes could possibly function effectively
d) the nervous system cannot be said to be
responsible for language learning.
e) the most significant part of the system is in the
Atoms are invisibly small parts of elements. The
atom itself is composed of three smaller parts;
positive charges and neutral particles in the
centre, and after a considerable amount of space
there are rings carrying the other part, negative
charges. The weight of the atom is calculated by
adding the neutral particles and the positive
charges. The negative and positive charges are the
same in number. Having an amazingly powerful force,
the neutral particle in the centre is the most
important part. That is the nuclear energy we all
know. When a neutral particle, for instance, from a
uranium atom is disconnected from the centre, the
atom loses its stability and becomes radioactive.
This outgoing particle hits one atom after another,
causing a consecutive reaction that produces nuclear
10. If the negative Charges and the positive ones
a) the total number of all the charges in an atom
can be found.
b) the weight of the atom may be calculated
c) nuclear energy is produced.
d) another element comes into being
e) the atom becomes unstable.
11. If a neutral particle flies out of the centre of
a) the empty space becomes full.
b) the weight of the atom skyrockets.
c) rings holding the negative charges are broken
d) the atom loses its balance.
e) radioactive materials are exhausted.
12. According to the passage it wouldn't be right to
a) it is impossible to see atoms though they exist.
b) the negative charges and the positive ones
attract one another and this create a balance
c) the balance is lost when the atom is pressed.
d) if the number of the negative and the positive
charges is 50 in an atom, the number of the negative
ones is 25
e) nuclear energy is generated by consecutive atomic
One day Josper Fant caught Bolivar skinning a
rattlesnake. He assumed that Bolivar was merely
going to make himself a rattlesnake belt, however,
he happened to turn around as Bolivar sliced the
snake right into the stew-pot, a sight which
agitated him greatly. He had heard that people ate
snakes, but had never expected to do so himself.
When he told the other hands what he had seen, they
were so aroused that they wanted to hang Bolivar on
the spot, or at least rope him and drag him through
the prickly pear to improve his manners. But when
they approached Augustus with the information about
the snake, he just laughed at them and attempted to
give them a lecture on the culinary properties of
13. Josper Fant became worried.....................
a) having witnessed that Bolivar was preparing to
grill the rattlesnake he had skinned
b) as Bolivar was removing the skin of a rattlesnake
to make a belt
c) when he heard that the others would punish
Bolivar for eating a forbidden food
d) as he had never eaten snake, nor had he seen
anybody doing that
e) when the others came to have a look at the sliced
14. It is inferred from the passage
a) Bolivar ought to have been punished by being
dragged though the prickly orchard or by being
whipped with a rope
b) Josper Fant and the other fellows were
knowledgeable about other edible snakes
c) if it hadn't been for Augustus, Josper's friends
would have deprived Bolivar of the pleasure of
eating the snake
d) Josper had never heard people ate snake
e) Bolivar and Augustus had tasted rattlesnake
several times before that incident
15. According to the passage, ................
a) Agustus was a wise person who they referred to
for any dispute in deadlock
b) Josper and his friends planned to punish Bolivar
badly so that he ought to change his misconducts
c) What agitated Josper was Bolivar's slicing of the
snake instead of putting the whole reptile over the
d) Boivar's friends made up their minds against
taking punitive action against him on the spot.
e) culinary properties of rattlesnakes were known to
everybody but those people there
Deep in the centre of the human brain are a number
of specific structures, such as the hypothalamus and
limbic system, which make up the "emotional brain."
These brain structures play important roles in
regulating a number of physical and emotional
functions, including appetite, sleep cycles, and
sexual drive. They include pleasure centres and
pain centres, operating to control feelings and
emotional expression. When your emotional brain is
functioning normally, you are able to get a good
night's sleep, feel rested, have normal sexual
interest and appetite, and not feel overwhelmed by
intense feelings. In other words you feel normal.
However, in biological depressions, such brain areas
begin to malfunction and can produce a number of
16. It can be concluded from the passage
a) certain types of depression result from the
malfunction of the emotional brain
b) Insomnia has nothing to do with the limbic system
but stems from an over activity in the hypothalamus
c) when you have intense feelings, the emotional
brain is extremely impaired
d) The hypothalamus and limbic system simply operate
to ease any emotional pain
e) if someone has no sexual interest and appetite,
he must have been depressed
17. The emotional brain............
a) consists of all the brain structures in the
deepest centre of the brain
b) from time to time deregulates some emotional
functions to depress one
c) keeps a person psychologically and physically at
d) enhances sexual interest as long as one's sleep
cycles are normal
e) should be removed when someone is experiencing
18. Sleeplessness may occur .....................
a) on account of postponed inter-neural conduction
b) to motivate the limbic system to regulate the
sleep cycles of an individual
c) if the individual has overcome a severe
d) so that one's appetite and sexual interest are
e) as a result of the emotional brain operating
Most debates about whether or not men are stronger
than women are meaningless because the disputants
fail to consider that the word "stronger" may mean
many things. Most men can surpass most women in
lifting heavy weights, in striking an object (say a
baseball or an opponent's jaw), in running, jumping,
or doing heavy physical labour. But the statistics
indicate that most women live longer than most men,
that they have better chance of resisting disease,
that they can beat men at operations requiring
finger dexterity and the ability to work accurately
under monotonous conditions. On this kind of proof
it would be legitimate to argue that women are
stronger than men. The truth is that each sex can
surpass the other in certain kinds of activities. To
say that one is stronger than the other is to
indulge in an argument that would arise if the word
"stronger" were more sharply defined.
19. It will prove inconclusive to argue about if
women are weaker than men.........................
a) when we consider the outstanding power of the
male in doing heavy physical work
b) unless we discuss it within the limits of a
c) since there are a great many women who play chess
better than their male opponents
d) women are ambidextrous, which enables them to
surpass men in all fields
e) as it is meaningless to discuss anything when it
comes to monotonous circumstances
20. It would be justifiable to argue that women are
stronger than men only...............-
a) because they use their hands more skilfully
though men outlive them
b) as the word "stronger" hasn't been clearly
c) if women weren't vulnerable to illnesses
d) when we consider women's performance in working
properly under boringly f routine conditions
e) if they were brought up in the same circumstances
21. It is stressed in the passage
a) it stems from women's stamina that they are
outlived by men
b) most discussants forget that the female lag
behind the male in living a healthy life
c) unless what we mean by "stronger" is clarified,
there is no point in disputing over which sex is
d) men are stronger than women only in a few kinds
e) whether men could live longer than women we could
say they are the strongest in all fields of activity
Is it possible to mould the unborn child's character
by the conduct of the mother during pregnancy? What
we know of prenatal development makes all this seem
utterly impossible. How could such extremely complex
influences pass from the mother to the child? There
is no connection between their nervous systems. Even
the blood vessels of mother and child
do not join directly. They lie side by side and the
chemicals are interchanged through the walls by a
process that we call osmosis. An emotional shock to
the mother will influence her child, because it
alters the activity of her glands and so the
chemistry of her blood. Any chemical change in the
mother's blood will affect the child -for better or
worse. However, we cannot see how a liking for
mathematics or poetic genius can be dissolved in the
blood and produce a similar liking or genius in the
22. It is expressed in the passage
a) the activity of the baby's glands may give us
insights into how we could imprint certain
characteristics in the baby's brain
b) if the blood vessels of the child and mother were
directly interconnected, any trait dissolved in the
blood would pass to the child
c) an emotional suffering of the mother influences
the baby so much that it will possibly be born to be
d) if it weren't for osmosis, the nervous systems of
the baby wouldn't be much influenced by any swinging
in its mother's mood
e) Prenatal modification of a baby's personality
through the conduct of the pregnant mother seems
23. Even though the blood vessels of mother and
child are indirectly connected,
a) their nervous systems conduct messages to one
b) osmosis enables mother's personal traits to pass
to the baby
c) some psychological conditions of mother pass to
the child through chemical interchanges
d) the chemistry of both mother and child's blood is
always the same owing to the regulatory glands
e) whenever the mother is diseased, so is the child
24. According to the passage the present birth
a) hasn't still managed to implant desirable traits
in a baby in the womb
b) fails to predict the sex of one's baby
c) is advanced enough to develop a baby in vitro
d) doesn't suffice to operate on a pregnant woman
e) can imprint poetic genius in an unborn child