Racial discrimination may be as old as human
history, but the system of apartheid - Africans for
"apartness" - was created only in the late 1940s,
after the National Party was voted into office by
disgruntled Afrikaners. The apartheid era started
with the passage in 1949 of the Prohibition of Mixed
Marriages Act, which laid the foundation of an
elaborate system of discriminatory legislation.
Hence, while most other countries were condemning
colonialism, white South Africa established a
frankly racist regime. Racism alone was not what
made apartheid uniquely evil; prejudice and
discrimination existed elsewhere, even in some black
countries. However, by the 1980s, racism was
deplored almost everywhere; when other nations
succumbed to it, they did so in violation of their
own laws and stated principles. Only in South Africa
was racism the law of the land.
1. Apartheid was...................
a) the systematic racial discrimination between
whites and blacks.
b) an unjust disadvantage given to whites.
c) discriminatory legislation passed by the North
d) the ban of interracial marriages.
e) the idea of disgruntled Africans.
2. What differentiates apartheid from other kinds of
racial discrimination was -
a) that it was not approved by the whites in South
b) that it was legally abandoned by the state.
c) its legal enforcement by the state.
d) its separation of blacks from whites.
e) that it prohibited interracial sex.
3. By the 1980s,....................
a) The whites in South Africa didn't detest the
blacks any more
b) even in South Africa there was no racism
c) the citizens of racist nations started to violate
all the laws of their own
d) some nations started to stick to racial practice
under the influence of nationalism
e) racism was abolished nearly all over the world.
Many acres of land are lost each year on account of
seawater eroding coastal land. Some coastal nations
have always struggled to hold back the sea from
their flat countries. The Dutch, for instance, have
got so skilled in hydro- engineering that they have
become world leaders in possession of the technology
to conserve land from the erosion caused by the sea.
They have not only protected their land, but also
reclaimed a lot of land from the sea by building a
huge, two-mile-long steel barrier to hold the
seawater back. If the theory of global warming is
correct, the ice in the poles will
gradually melt away as the temperature increases. In
such a case the level of the sea all over the earth
would rise six times higher, which would cause the
earth to be flooded.
4. The major reason why the Dutch possess the
highest technology in hydro- engineering
a) to reclaim more and more land from the sea.
b) to prevent the erosion of the soil in coastal
c) both to gain land from the sea and to stop the
sea taking in more and more land day by day.
d) to advance in hydro-engineering technology to
help coastal countries.
e) to provide land for some villagers without any
5. In case of a sudden sharp increase in the global
temperature, particularly coastal
a) will develop themselves in hydro-engineering
b) may be undergoing climatic changes
c) all the world will be awash in nuclear waste
d) could turn into tropical ones
e) would be flooded because of the ice on the poles
6. The passage is mainly related
a) sudden changes in the world's temperature
b) erosion by the sea in coastal countries and their
efforts to conserve their land
c) how advanced the Dutch are in hydro-engineering
and hydro-electric plants
d) how to reclaim land from rough terrain by the sea
e) the fact that the earth is getting warmer and
warmer due to erosion
Many Americans doing sedentary jobs have recently
started to take physical activity back into their
daily routines since they are convinced that
vigorous exercise is beneficial to their health.
Owing to the potential health benefits of physical
activity; some American companies - anxious to keep
their workers as healthy and fit as possible - have
started to encourage them to spend their time at
exercise centres. Studies indicate that those who
engage in vigorous physical activity suffer fewer
heart attacks and even if they did, they would be
less fatal. Exercise is beneficial to the heart and
lungs, if it is frequent and vigorous - the kind
that raises the pulse rate and keeps it high. If
done over an extended length of time, it lowers the
resting pulse rate, blood pressure and serum
7. Somebody is doing a sedentary job if
a) teach at a high school.
b) walk a long way to work everyday.
c) sit all day at a table with a computer on it.
d) work in a factory.
e) are a labourer toiling in fields.
8. In view of the possible benefits of exercise some
American firms have began to encourage their
employees to take as much exercise as possible
because they are
a) anxious to keep their workers healthy.
b) fearful to keep their workers healthy.
c) reluctant to keep their workers healthy.
d) very eager to keep their workers healthy.
e) involuntary to keep their workers healthy.
9. It is clear from the passage that
a) beneficial to the health is exercise taken
b) many American firms have already started to
encourage their employees to half their shift
c) taking exercise frequently for a long time
increases the pulse rate at rest.
d) only those having sedentary jobs should take
e) those engaging in vigorous exercise are less
likely to experience heart attacks most of which
would not be fatal even if they did.
The air is becoming hazardously inclusive of
hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide in many big cities.
Everybody's health is getting threatened by these
fatal substances. For the reduction of their amount,
pro-environmental groups in the U.K have proposed
ways of limiting the use of automobiles. One
solution would be to make daily commuters use mass
transportation vehicles such as .buses, trains or
subways instead of their private cars. Another
proposal by these groups is that car drivers be
prevented from driving into the1 city centre one or
two days a week. It is also proposed that people be
banned from parking on certain streets. If car
drivers were controlled in such ways by legal steps,
people would be forced to make more use of mass
transportation than private cars.
10. The passage points out that.....................
a) The air pollution is claimed to be mainly caused
by hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide from automobiles.
b) Mass transportation vehicles pollute the air we
all breathe more than automobiles.
c) While so much smoke comes out of factories, it
would be unfair to place all the blame on mass
d) If the use of cars remains uncontrolled, the
concerned fatal substances will kill many people
e) Any limitation on the use of cars would be the
restriction of personal freedom.
11. To reduce the amount of fatal substances, groups
in favour of the environment
a) suggested that car driving in city centres should
be completely banned.
b) proposed that car drivers be prevented from
driving into the city centre once or twice a week.
c) proposed that some limitations be imposed on car
owners driving into and out of the city centre each
d) suggested that new parking spaces ought to be
provided for car owners.
e) proposed that filters be fitted for the exhaust
pipes of cars.
12. The author emphasizes that.....................
a) cars ought to be manufactured that do not emit
fatally poisonous gases.
b) strict limitations ought to be legally imposed
upon car owners even to the extent that cars are
banned from intra-city driving on week days.
c) commuters getting into and out of the city centre
everyday should be legally made to use forms of mass
d) multi-passenger vehicles like buses should be
abolished as they occupy
places where cars could be put instead.
e) we should turn to scientists to find a way out of
Splitting an embryo may seem a great technological
leaf, but in a world where embryos are already
created in test tubes, it is a baby step. The
current challenge in reproductive medicine is not to
produce more embryos but to identify healthy ones
and get them to grow in the womb. Doctors and
geneticists have made amazing progress on this
front. Using genetic tests, they can now screen
embryonic cells for hereditary diseases like cystic
fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. 'In the
not-too-distant future, prenatal tests may also help
predict such common problems as obesity, depression
and heart disease. But don't anticipate scientists
to begin building new traits into babies any time
soon. The technical obstacles are formidable, and so
are the cultural ones.
13. Nowadays it is alleged to be technologically
a) to pre-natally spot any disease in the embryo and
to cure it.
b) to produce reproductive medicine to enhance the
growth of babies.
c) to split an embryo.
d) to find out if an embryo is healthy.
e) that geneticists pre-diagnose embryonic diseases.
14. Due to technological and cultural
a) it is not expected that doctors will pre-identify
healthy embryos and let them grow in the womb.
b) Diseases like obesity cannot be prevented before
c) it isn't possible to carry out further prenatal
d) it is possible to imprint any characteristics on
e) it is not likely for scientists to pre-natally
change the traits of babies.
15. Today it is probable.........
a) to recombine a split embryo
b) to produce more embryos than before
c) to identify some diseases before the baby is born
d) to implant desirable personal traits in babies
e) to identify healthy embryos
The beauty of bread is its simplicity. Flour and
liquid are the main ingredients, along with yeast
and sometimes salt, and from these basics we get a
nourishing and tasty food that gives us
carbohydrates, proteins, and C vitamins, and comes
in a variety of shapes, textures and flavours.
Practically every culture has its own type of bread,
and many more than one. For centuries it was the
white breads that were popular, but nowadays more
16. As it is pointed out in the passage the
ingredients of bread.....
b) vary greatly in different part of the world.
c) are few and simple but there is much selection in
the of bread products.
d) are low in food value.
e) are now very different from what they were a few
17. The passage stresses that bread is a useful item
in our diet
a) even though most people don't really like the
b) But should only be eaten in small quantities.
c) distinctively if we confine ourselves to the
d) On account of both its flavour and the
nourishment it provides;
e) So long as it is eaten with foods containing
protein and carbohydrates.
18. According to the passage, the present day trend
in favour of brown bread.....................
a) is understandable and to be encouraged.
b) is not a healthy trend.
c) cannot be expected to go on.
d) is to be found only in the Villages.
e) has nothing to do with the quality or nourishment
but only with appearance.
Many of us enjoy a visit to a zoo and for those
seeing lions for the first time it is surely a most
thrilling experience. But how many people stop to
wonder how the animals are feeling in their
frequently unsuitable surroundings? Most zoos cannot
afford to provide all the separate species with the
right environment. The animals in zoos may be
well-fed, but a hunting animal wants to hunt for its
19. It is pointed out in the passage that, coming
close to such wild animals as jaguars and lions,
a) can only be possible in large zoos.
b) gives some people a strong sense of excitement.
c) can make them very aggressive towards people.
d) is unsettling form young children.
e) is the only way to understand their eating
20. The writer feels that few people................
a) visit a zoo in order to see the animals there.
b) are indifferent to the feeling of zoo excitement.
c) are involved in any of the animal species.
d) are sufficiently sensitive to the conditions of
animals kept in zoos.
e) really want to see a living lion or tiger.
21. It is emphasized in the passage that the living
conditions of most animals in zoo
a) are carefully designed to make the animals happy.
b) have recently improved greatly.
c) could easily be improved at little cost.
d) tell us a lot about the natural surrounding..
e) are very different from those of their natural
Born on January 30th 1955, Phil Collins seemed
destined for a life on the stage. While his father
was in charge of an insurance office, his mother
managed a theatre school in London. All three of her
children had parts in films. When Phil got a part in
the London production of "Oliver", he left school
for a career in acting. Meanwhile, he was already
playing drums at parties and clubs and had begun to
write his own songs, secretly hopping that one day
this would be his full-time job. Then, in 1978,
something happened that changed his life; He became
the drummer of the Genesis group.
22. As the passage point out, the pop music singer
a) originally wanted to work alongside his mother.
b) was introduced early in his life to the world of
c) got little encouragement from his family
d) was the first in his family to go on stage.
e) continued his schooling even after he took a part
in the musical "Oliver".
23. in accordance with the passage, although Phil
Collins began his career in the theatre,
a) his real interest lay in music.
b) he always dreamed of being a successful
businessman like his father.
c) his real talent was in film-making.
d) he did so very unwillingly.
e) he has always disliked being in the public eye.
24. The passage tells us that the year 1978
a) was when Phil Collins fist had a song accepted by
b) was the year in which Phil Collins left the
c) was a turning point in Phil Collins's life.
d) was one of great disappointments for Phil
e) saw the end of Phil Collins's career as a singer.