Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some
people often suppose. It usually wears off with
time-but the time can seem endless. Activities
giving companionship and a new interest can be
helpful. However, for the sufferer to talk, again
and again, about the causes of the depression helps
most. People with depression need to be listened to
and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made
to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They may
need professional counselling as well as the support
of family members and friends.
1. In coping with depression the support of friends
and family members ............. .
a) can best be directed into giving good advice
b) is the only solution
c) might cause more harm than good
d) never contributes to the treatment
e) is not always sufficient.
2. The writer states that people with depression
a) should not be allowed much social activity
b) ought to rely solely on professional counselling
c) need, more than anything else, someone to listen
d) should remain alienated from society for a long
e) receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy
3. In accordance with the passage some people
a) seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get
b) suffer from depression over long periods of time.
c) refuse to get professional help
d) suffering from depression have been cured through
the good advice of friends.
e) with depression don't want to talk about their
Most of the art museums and art galleries and many
people in the art world had financial problems in
1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On
the surface things seemed to continue as before,
with important exhibitions in major museums
attracting large crowds. However, smaller galleries,
and the artists whose work was shown by their
resourceful proprietors, fared less well, and over
the long term it is the work of young artists that
determines the course of art for the future.
4. The point shown in the passage is that the
recession in the 1970s............. .
a) made many young artists to give up their
b) caused the immediate closure of several major
museums in the West
c) was one of the most serious in economic history
d) didn't at first appear to hit hard at the art
e) meant exhibitions were unnecessary luxuries
5. One can conclude from the passage that if a
generation of young artists is lost............. ,
a) this would not have a damaging effect on art
museums and galleries even in the long run
b) the development of art will be greatly hampered
in the future
c) recession in the art-market would not last very
d) smaller galleries would benefit from it
e) organizing exhibitions would be even more costly
6. In accordance with the passage, the individuals
in the art world who 'were most strongly affected by
the recession ............. .
a) were young artists and the small galleries.
b) tried to balance their losses by buying up the
work of young artists
c) were the well established art dealers
d) decided to stop holding exhibitions altogether
e) resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting
large crowds to their
Computers should never have received the
significant: status they now have, Fascinating and
invaluable as they are, even the most developed have
less brain power than a three-year-old. The\ do,
however, score on single mindedness. The three year
old uses her brain not only to think but also to do
some certain tasks like seeing hearing and cunning
about, which need incredibly fast and sophisticated
electro-mechanical interactions. But the computer
just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or
re-arranges the world banking system which is very
much easier. That's why man's dream of robot maids
is still a long way off.
7. The main point shown by the passage is that the
a) is much inferior to any known computer
b) is infinitely more complex and powerful than any
c) is not as complicated and mysterious as has
usually been thought
d) reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of
e) has been entirely reproduced in computer form
8. It is emphasized in the passage that the
efficiency of the computer
a) depend on the/speed with which the data are
b) will soon make it possible for man to be served
c) can best be appreciated in the decision-making
d) is the result of its being concentrated on one
task at a time
e) depends on sophisticated electro-mechanical
9. The author thinks that Computers ............. .
a), have contributed immensely to the improvement of
b) are becoming unaffordable as they get more
c) have been unnecessarily overrated.
d) will be a major force behind all future progress.
e) are capable of doing all the tasks the human
brain performs even more efficiently.
The rapid growth of the world's population in the
century has been on a scale without parallel in
human history. Most of this growth has taken place
since 1950 and is known, as the population
explosion. Between 1950 and 1980 the world
population went up from 2.5 to over 4 billion, and
by the end of the century this figure will have
risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size
cannot carry on indefinitely. Recent forecasts
suggest that the total population will remain steady
between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first
century. Already there are encouraging signs that
the rate of rise in many underdeveloped countries is
beginning to slow down.
10. In accordance with the passage, at no period in
human history has there been ............. . .
a) a sharp decrease in population like the one since
b) so much consensus among nations concerning the
population of the world
c) a universal fear about the future of human
d) as comprehensive a study of population problems
as the one envisaged now
e) a population explosion of the magnitude of the
one in this century
11. It is stated in the passage that the increase in
the world population ............. .
a) is expected to continue even faster until 1950
b) is a highly encouraging sign for the general
c) will not continue into the next century
d) has been carrying on noticeably since 1950
e) has been much faster in the developed countries.
12. It has been anticipated that, by the middle of
the next century
a) the population growth rate in less developed
countries will be much higher than that in previous
b) kinds of measures will have been taken to
encourage population growth
c) the world population will not be stabilized at
around 10 to 15 billion.
d) the rate of increase will still be increasing
e) the rate of population rise will have doubled the
Most substances, either artificial or natural, can
cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these
reach the environment in waste streams; however
emission limits and environmental quality standards
can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released.
However, some other matters cannot be controlled in
this way because they are released, not in
industrial waste streams, but through the use or
disposal products which contain them. In many cases
these substances pose little or no threat if the
product containing them is used and disposed of
properly. The accurate wav to deal with them is
through controls over their supply, use and disposal
13. In accordance with the passage, the threat of
some certain substances to the
a) is for less than that to man
b) could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and
c) has been unnecessarily over emphasized
d) has to date been completely ignored
e) can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste
14. The author expresses that the danger posed to
man by some substances ............. .
a) is even greater than generally admitted
b) is unrelated to environmental pollution
c) continues to grow despite constant control of
d) is solely due to the use of industrial waste
e) arises from their misuse and wrong disposal
15. The passage is related to the question of
a) how the harmful effects of certain substances can
be kept under control
b) why industrial waste streams have led to so much
c) what measures are to be taken against the supply
of dangerous substances
d) if man-made substances and natural ones cause
e) who is responsible for taking the required
The Peter Principle is derived from the analysis of
the hundreds of cases of incompetence in
organizations which can be seen anywhere. The
principle points out that in a hierarchy every
employee tends to reach his level of incompetence
and it applies to all organizations. The Principle
assumes a constant quest for high performance. Hence
people competent at their jobs are promoted so that
they may do still better. Competence in each new
qualifies for promotion to the next until each
individual reaches a job beyond his abilities and
therefore no longer performs in a way that gains
further promotion. This is his level of incompetence
Given two conditions enough ranks in the hierarchy
to provide promotions and enough time to move
through them all employees reach and remain at their
level of incompetence. This can be stated as Peter's
Principle: In time, every post tends to be occupied
by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its
16. The level of incompetence ..............
a) is the level that the Principle assumes a
constant quest foil high performance.
b) is somehow a degree of a post where one cannot
perform well enough to receive any further
c) is a promotion where competence qualities
promotion to the next
d) is a post that in a hierarchy every employer
tends to rise to
e) is the level that the incompetent employees
demand to he promoted to.
17. That the competence is essential ..............
a) is supposed by the Principle for promotion to the
b) is assumed by the Principle as a constant quest
c) is for each individual who's arrived at a job
beyond his abilities.
d) is obviously for the employees who are at their
level of incompetence.
e) is for a post which is occupied by an employee
who is incompetent to carry out its
18. The conclusion shown from the Peter Principle
a) is that in a hierarchy every employee who is
incompetent tends to rise to his level of
b) is that it is derived from the analysis of the
hundreds of cases of incompetence in organizations
which can be seen anywhere
c) is assuring periodic request for high
d) is that having the employees do still better is
possible by never providing promotion for them.
e) is that in time every post tends to be occupied
by an person who's supposed to be incompetent to
carry out its requirements.
Doctors began treating malaria long before they knew
what caused it. The first recorded breakthrough came
in the 17th century, when European missionaries
learned that the bark of South- American cinchona
trees contained the potent but toxic remedy now
known as quinine. By the time pharmaceutical
companies developed reliable supplies, in the 1920s,
a better treatment was imminent. Chloroquine,
introduced in 1943 by the U.S. Military, was as
potent as quinine -yet it was longer active, cheaper
to produce and so well tolerated that people no
longer had to wait passively for malaria to strike.
They could take regular doses in order to prevent
19. Before 1943,.....................
a) It was impossible for people to use a drug for
the treatment of malaria,
b) The existing drugs were not as safe as to use for
prevention of the disease as well as a cure.
c) There existed no pharmaceutical solutions to
treat the disease.
d) The drugs that were routinely used were reliable
but not active long enough
e) Quinine was the only safe drug to treat malaria
20. The first remedy for the disease dates as back
as to 300 years ago even though...............
a) it was historically recordable as important for
b) reliable drugs were not discovered until after
c) only the bark of a North American tree was the
d) it was venomous and unsafe to use as tolerably as
those drugs used now.
e) doctors had also been totally successful in
treating the disease before.
21. Chloroquine is different from quinine in
a) it was developed by the military during a war
b) it was twice as potent as quinine although it had
c) it could be taken to prevent the disease as well
as to cure it after infection
d) unfortunately, it was not so reliable as the
e) it was toxic enough to kill an adult
The death rate from heart disease has dropped by
half since the mid-1960s. However, studies
consistently find that the improvement has less to
do with treatment than with changes in diet and
lifestyle. In a 1988 study Dr. Lee Goldman, a
Harvard cardiologist, analyzed the decline in
between 1968 and 1976. Even though he could not
account for all of it, he traced more than half to
the drop in cigarette smoking and cholesterol
intake. Roughly 20 percent of the drop was due to
heart and blood-pressure drugs, and only 3.5 percent
to bypass surgery. Goldman has lately updated his
findings, and he says the same basic lesson still
impact of the costliest interventions is minimal."
22. The recent drop in deaths from cardiac diseases
a) is owing to people's eating less than they need
b) is due to blood-pressure drugs and carefully
c) can be attributed to bypass operations
d) can be put down to medical treatment
e) can be associated with changes in people's eating
habits and lifestyles
23. What is meant by "The impact of the costliest
interventions is minimal?"
a) The effect of the dearest surgical .operations is
b) The effect of the most expensive operations is
c) The more expensive the operation is, the less
successful the result is
d) Expensive surgical operations always bring about
e) Anything can't be done as the heart problem gets
24. According to Dr. Lee Goldman's
a) most of the recent deaths occurred on account of
cigarette smoking and cholesterol
b) only half of the deaths occurred because of
cigarette smoking and cholesterol
c) some deaths are attributable to abortive surgical
d) medical treatment has made only a little impact
on the slowdown of the death rate
e) a quarter of the deaths are due to heart and
blood pressure drugs