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TEST – 19

Real depression cannot be as easily overcome as some people often suppose. It usually wears off with time-but the time can seem endless. Activities giving companionship and a new interest can be helpful. However, for the sufferer to talk, again and again, about the causes of the depression helps most. People with depression need to be listened to and encouraged to find their own solutions, not made to feel yet more inadequate by good advice. They may need professional counselling as well as the support of family members and friends.

1. In coping with depression the support of friends and family members ............. .
a) can best be directed into giving good advice
b) is the only solution
c) might cause more harm than good
d) never contributes to the treatment
e) is not always sufficient.

2. The writer states that people with depression ..............
a) should not be allowed much social activity
b) ought to rely solely on professional counselling
c) need, more than anything else, someone to listen to them
d) should remain alienated from society for a long time
e) receive an unnecessary amount of sympathy

3. In accordance with the passage some people ............. .
a) seem to underestimate how difficult it is to get over depression.
b) suffer from depression over long periods of time.
c) refuse to get professional help
d) suffering from depression have been cured through the good advice of friends.
e) with depression don't want to talk about their personal problems.

Most of the art museums and art galleries and many people in the art world had financial problems in 1975 as the effects of world recession deepened. On the surface things seemed to continue as before, with important exhibitions in major museums attracting large crowds. However, smaller galleries, and the artists whose work was shown by their resourceful proprietors, fared less well, and over the long term it is the work of young artists that determines the course of art for the future.

4. The point shown in the passage is that the recession in the 1970s............. .
a) made many young artists to give up their profession
b) caused the immediate closure of several major museums in the West
c) was one of the most serious in economic history
d) didn't at first appear to hit hard at the art world
e) meant exhibitions were unnecessary luxuries

5. One can conclude from the passage that if a generation of young artists is lost............. ,
a) this would not have a damaging effect on art museums and galleries even in the long run
b) the development of art will be greatly hampered in the future
c) recession in the art-market would not last very long
d) smaller galleries would benefit from it
e) organizing exhibitions would be even more costly

6. In accordance with the passage, the individuals in the art world who 'were most strongly affected by the recession ............. .
a) were young artists and the small galleries.
b) tried to balance their losses by buying up the work of young artists
c) were the well established art dealers
d) decided to stop holding exhibitions altogether
e) resorted to all sorts of methods of attracting large crowds to their

Computers should never have received the significant: status they now have, Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most developed have less brain power than a three-year-old. The\ do, however, score on single mindedness. The three year old uses her brain not only to think but also to do some certain tasks like seeing hearing and cunning about, which need incredibly fast and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions. But the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-arranges the world banking system which is very much easier. That's why man's dream of robot maids is still a long way off.

7. The main point shown by the passage is that the human brain
a) is much inferior to any known computer
b) is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer.
c) is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought
d) reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three
e) has been entirely reproduced in computer form

8. It is emphasized in the passage that the efficiency of the computer
a) depend on the/speed with which the data are collected
b) will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots
c) can best be appreciated in the decision-making positions.
d) is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time
e) depends on sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions.

9. The author thinks that Computers ............. .
a), have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards.
b) are becoming unaffordable as they get more developed.
c) have been unnecessarily overrated.
d) will be a major force behind all future progress.
e) are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently.

The rapid growth of the world's population in the twentieth
century has been on a scale without parallel in human history. Most of this growth has taken place since 1950 and is known, as the population explosion. Between 1950 and 1980 the world population went up from 2.5 to over 4 billion, and by the end of the century this figure will have risen to at least 6 billion. Growth of this size cannot carry on indefinitely. Recent forecasts suggest that the total population will remain steady between 10 and 15 billion in the mid twenty-first century. Already there are encouraging signs that the rate of rise in many underdeveloped countries is beginning to slow down.

10. In accordance with the passage, at no period in human history has there been ............. . .
a) a sharp decrease in population like the one since 1980
b) so much consensus among nations concerning the population of the world
c) a universal fear about the future of human beings.
d) as comprehensive a study of population problems as the one envisaged now
e) a population explosion of the magnitude of the one in this century

11. It is stated in the passage that the increase in the world population ............. .
a) is expected to continue even faster until 1950
b) is a highly encouraging sign for the general economy
c) will not continue into the next century
d) has been carrying on noticeably since 1950
e) has been much faster in the developed countries.

12. It has been anticipated that, by the middle of the next century
a) the population growth rate in less developed countries will be much higher than that in previous years.
b) kinds of measures will have been taken to encourage population growth
c) the world population will not be stabilized at around 10 to 15 billion.
d) the rate of increase will still be increasing
e) the rate of population rise will have doubled the 1950 rate.

Most substances, either artificial or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; however emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. However, some other matters cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, but through the use or disposal products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The accurate wav to deal with them is through controls over their supply, use and disposal

13. In accordance with the passage, the threat of some certain substances to the environment............. .
a) is for less than that to man
b) could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls
c) has been unnecessarily over emphasized
d) has to date been completely ignored
e) can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams

14. The author expresses that the danger posed to man by some substances ............. .
a) is even greater than generally admitted
b) is unrelated to environmental pollution
c) continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems
d) is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams
e) arises from their misuse and wrong disposal

15. The passage is related to the question of ............. .
a) how the harmful effects of certain substances can be kept under control
b) why industrial waste streams have led to so much pollution
c) what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances
d) if man-made substances and natural ones cause pollution
e) who is responsible for taking the required precautions

The Peter Principle is derived from the analysis of the hundreds of cases of incompetence in organizations which can be seen anywhere. The principle points out that in a hierarchy every employee tends to reach his level of incompetence and it applies to all organizations. The Principle assumes a constant quest for high performance. Hence people competent at their jobs are promoted so that they may do still better. Competence in each new position
qualifies for promotion to the next until each individual reaches a job beyond his abilities and therefore no longer performs in a way that gains further promotion. This is his level of incompetence Given two conditions enough ranks in the hierarchy to provide promotions and enough time to move through them all employees reach and remain at their level of incompetence. This can be stated as Peter's Principle: In time, every post tends to be occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its duties.

16. The level of incompetence ..............
a) is the level that the Principle assumes a constant quest foil high performance.
b) is somehow a degree of a post where one cannot perform well enough to receive any further promotion.
c) is a promotion where competence qualities promotion to the next
d) is a post that in a hierarchy every employer tends to rise to
e) is the level that the incompetent employees demand to he promoted to.

17. That the competence is essential ..............
a) is supposed by the Principle for promotion to the next one.
b) is assumed by the Principle as a constant quest for high
c) is for each individual who's arrived at a job beyond his abilities.
d) is obviously for the employees who are at their level of incompetence.
e) is for a post which is occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its responsibilities.

18. The conclusion shown from the Peter Principle ............. .
a) is that in a hierarchy every employee who is incompetent tends to rise to his level of incompetence.
b) is that it is derived from the analysis of the hundreds of cases of incompetence in organizations which can be seen anywhere
c) is assuring periodic request for high performance.
d) is that having the employees do still better is possible by never providing promotion for them.
e) is that in time every post tends to be occupied by an person who's supposed to be incompetent to carry out its requirements.

Doctors began treating malaria long before they knew what caused it. The first recorded breakthrough came in the 17th century, when European missionaries learned that the bark of South- American cinchona trees contained the potent but toxic remedy now known as quinine. By the time pharmaceutical companies developed reliable supplies, in the 1920s, a better treatment was imminent. Chloroquine, introduced in 1943 by the U.S. Military, was as potent as quinine -yet it was longer active, cheaper to produce and so well tolerated that people no longer had to wait passively for malaria to strike. They could take regular doses in order to prevent the disease.

19. Before 1943,.....................
a) It was impossible for people to use a drug for the treatment of malaria,
b) The existing drugs were not as safe as to use for prevention of the disease as well as a cure.
c) There existed no pharmaceutical solutions to treat the disease.
d) The drugs that were routinely used were reliable but not active long enough
e) Quinine was the only safe drug to treat malaria radically

20. The first remedy for the disease dates as back as to 300 years ago even though...............
a) it was historically recordable as important for the disease.
b) reliable drugs were not discovered until after 1943.
c) only the bark of a North American tree was the solution.
d) it was venomous and unsafe to use as tolerably as those drugs used now.
e) doctors had also been totally successful in treating the disease before.

21. Chloroquine is different from quinine in that.........................
a) it was developed by the military during a war
b) it was twice as potent as quinine although it had certain weaknesses
c) it could be taken to prevent the disease as well as to cure it after infection
d) unfortunately, it was not so reliable as the latter
e) it was toxic enough to kill an adult

The death rate from heart disease has dropped by half since the mid-1960s. However, studies consistently find that the improvement has less to do with treatment than with changes in diet and lifestyle. In a 1988 study Dr. Lee Goldman, a Harvard cardiologist, analyzed the decline in cardiac death
between 1968 and 1976. Even though he could not account for all of it, he traced more than half to the drop in cigarette smoking and cholesterol intake. Roughly 20 percent of the drop was due to heart and blood-pressure drugs, and only 3.5 percent to bypass surgery. Goldman has lately updated his findings, and he says the same basic lesson still holds: "The
impact of the costliest interventions is minimal."

22. The recent drop in deaths from cardiac diseases
a) is owing to people's eating less than they need
b) is due to blood-pressure drugs and carefully watched diets
c) can be attributed to bypass operations
d) can be put down to medical treatment
e) can be associated with changes in people's eating habits and lifestyles

23. What is meant by "The impact of the costliest interventions is minimal?"
a) The effect of the dearest surgical .operations is the least
b) The effect of the most expensive operations is maximal
c) The more expensive the operation is, the less successful the result is
d) Expensive surgical operations always bring about successful results
e) Anything can't be done as the heart problem gets serious

24. According to Dr. Lee Goldman's findings.................
a) most of the recent deaths occurred on account of cigarette smoking and cholesterol
b) only half of the deaths occurred because of cigarette smoking and cholesterol
c) some deaths are attributable to abortive surgical operations
d) medical treatment has made only a little impact on the slowdown of the death rate
e) a quarter of the deaths are due to heart and blood pressure drugs


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