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TEST – 18

What is the current role of the United States? Is it, as some say, a station in decline, one that is falling behind in the competitive arena of international trade? Or is it undergoing a process of adaptation and renewal? A spate of books has been published on the subject during the past few years, and these have sparked a wide ranging public debate over these concerns. One of the best known of these books in Paul Kennedy's Rise and Fall of he Great Powers in fact, Paul Kennedy is the most prominent of the decline theorists. Examining the history of great powers such as 16th century Spain and the British Empire around 1900; he identifies a pattern of "imperial over stretch". To maintain a position of dominance, great powers over time find themselves devoting an increasing share of their resources to military security. This often leads to a neglect of technological innovation, and, ultimately, to a decline in economic strength.

1. The questions related with which the author begins this passage
a) explain his full trust in the strength of the United States
b) imply that the united States in an invincible world power
c) clearly show that he is uncertain about the present position of the United states in the world
d) demonstrate the author's confidence in the future of his country
e) bear almost no relationship to the argument that is then developed

2. In his work "Rise and Fall of Great Powers" Paul Kennedy ............. .
a) points out that the British Empire collapsed because it ignored new advances in technology
b) argues that the great powers in the past declined because of the drain on resources for military security
c) explains that the Spanish Empire in the 16th century was solely concerned with its economic strength
d) confines himself to a study of current international issues that concern the United States
e) is of the opinion that the term "imperial over stretch" has been misused among historians

3. In accordance with the passage, the question of the current role of the United States ............. .
a) is of little interest but anyone but political historians
b) should not be related to the concept of "imperial over stretch"
c) has not viewed within any historical context
d) has triggered off a great deal of discussion throughout society
e) has received its most plausible explanation in Paul Kennedy's latest book

The main advantage of prefabrication are two fold: it is quicker and it does away with uncertainty. Speed in building is significant these days due to the high cost of land: the-time during which such an expensive commodity is out of use must be reduced to a minimum. And partly or wholly prefabricated methods of construction save time on the job because parts are prepared in the factory beforehand. Prefabrication does away with uncertainty because it means that the whole building is made of standard parts the behaviour of which is known and has been tested.

4. Since land is very precious it is important that..............
a) the building materials should also be expensive
b) costs do not continue to rise
c) people should not disagree as to the advantages of prefabrication
d) building costs be reduced to a minimum
e) it does not remain out of use for long

5. The only one advantage of using prefabricated parts is that............. .
a) this method is cheaper than standard methods
b) fewer skilled workmen are required
c) less land is needed
d) buildings can be constructed much faster
e) there is more scope for experiment

6. When a building is founded from standard parts that hale been well-tested ............. .
a) One is still not sure how they will behave in a particular situation
b) there is no scope for originality
c) new methods of construction are overlooked
d) one knows in advance that the result will be satisfactory
e) the costs will naturally be excessively high

Computers can store vast amount of information in a very small space and are used by the banks to keep accounts, and control transactions. They are also used by the police to keep personal, records, fingerprints and other details. In the developing field of robotics computers are now being used to control manual operations done by machines, These two are taking over work, previously done by humans, in the manufacture of cars, in weaving and other industries. Computers play an important role in controlling artificial satellites,' decoding information and communications generally. They are used to predict the weather with increasing accuracy.

7. One can understand from the passage that............. .
a) computers have become an indispensable part of our life
b) weather forecasts carried out by computers are not reliable at all
c) despite great advances in computer techniques, they are not proving as useful-as once hoped
d) robotics has long been a field of keen scientific interest for man
e) computerized banking has led to an increase in unemployment

8. The author implies that............. .
a) the police use computers to make sure that their records are not leaked
b) industry is turning back to traditional methods of production
c) the principal use of computers is in space technology
d) computers are too complex for everyday use
e) the use of robots, directed by computers, is becoming widespread in industry

9. The passage is not related to ............. .
a) how computers are produced
b) the application of computers in industry
c) the use of computers in communications and the transfer of information
d) the conservation of information by technology
e) the role played by computers in crime detection

As the major cost of advanced education, if the student is away from home, is board and lodging one can argue that as far as possible the expansion of public education beyond high school should be arranged reasonably. Otherwise, in order to offer equal-opportunities we should have to envisage using public funds to provide years of free board and room for a considerable fraction of our high school graduates. But there are different types of professional and vocational education which can be given at only a few centres in even a very populous state. It is literally impossible, for example, to give adequate instruction in clinical medicine except in cities of sufficient size to support large hospitals. Similarly, advanced work in the arts, sciences, and letters can be done only where adequate libraries and laboratories are at hand. It is clearly in the national interest to find all the latent talent available for the lengthy training that research centres at every point in the United States where general education beyond the high school is desired would be not merely uneconomical, but impossible.

10. What is mainly mentioned in the passage? .............,
a) How education beyond high school should be arranged
b) How lodging and board should be provided
c) How to provide free board and lodging
d) Why university education has failed in the USA
e) How to provide first-rate education for all students

11. In accordance with the author, all public education beyond high school cannot be arranged locally because ..............
a) hospital services cannot be secured.
b) there would not be enough housing.
c) certain types of education would be too costly to maintain.
d) that would be against equal-opportunity principle.
e) most localities would grow beyond control.

12. The author implies that............. .
a) researches centres should be established even in the smallest
b) there is no way a student can receive adequate clinical education in a small hospital
c) a talented student will be satisfactorily educated no matter where he is educated.
d) the only thing to do is to give up the ideal of equal opportunity.
e) he finds it essential that all university students should be given free board and lodging.

Looking ahead from the present position where food production has kept ahead of population growth globally, but has fallen per capita in 55 (mainly African) countries^ it would seem that these trends will carry on. About 30 countries most of which are African can expect serious problems unless they reduce population growth and give higher priority to agriculture and conservation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high G02 levels is likely to be capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inadequate for many poorer countries. In many circumstances, the population projections are greater than the entire local land resources can support.

13. Among all the countries in the world it is those hi Africa ............. .
a) which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth
b) that are most threatened by food shortages
c) that are most conscious of the need to preserve the environment
d) which are environmentally most at a disadvantage '
e) in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development

14. It is discussed the passage that............. .
a) changes in world climate are giving rise to the problems of food production
b) with the exception of African countries, the global production of food is adequate and likely to continue so
c) agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages
d) the conservation of land resources is of minor importance
e) every effort must be made to prevent the C02 level from rising

15. In accordance with the passage, it is anticipated that............. .
a) food production will double in the future
b) the per capita income in Africa countries will continue to rise
c) the present situation concerning population growth and food production will soon improve
d) all the African countries will soon .solve all their population problems
e) unless serious measures are taken, the poor countries of the world will be faced with famine

Psychology is literally the study of the mind (or soul) hut its area has broadened somewhat in the last century as we have learned that one cannot consider the mind as totally isolated from the body, and it now covers the study of human personality and behaviour. Psychologists also deal with the behaviour and brain of animals whenever such studies throw light on human behaviour. It is important to realize that psychologists are first and foremost trained as scientists rather than as medical experts and do not necessarily take much interest in abnormalities of the brain and mental process.

16. As can be concluded from the passage, psychology ............. .
a) has always been confined to the study of the mind
b) has in time developed as a branch of medicine
c) is not concerned with the mind alone, but also with human personality and behaviour
d) primarily concentrates on the study of animal behaviour
e) mostly deals with mental abnormalities

17. In the passages attention is shown to the fact that..............
a) Psychologists give great importance to the study of mental processes for medical purposes
b) psychologists are basically scientists
c) the human mind can be best understood through the study of animal behaviour
d) the body and the. mind are separate entities in the eyes of psychologists.
e) there have been no noticeable developments in psychology since the last century.

18. It is implied in the passage that..............
a) the study of human behaviour alone is what interests present-day psychologists
b) a close cooperation between psychologists and medical experts is vital
c) as a branch of science, psychology is no longer to be understood in its literal sense
d) the mind and the body function independently
e) in recent years psychologists have concentrated mostly on the study of the mind

Aid to underdeveloped countries takes many forms and it is given for several reasons. Underdeveloped countries need aid to provide finance for development projects, to provide foreign exchange with which Imports for development purpose can be bought, and to provide the trained human power and technical knowledge they lack. The motives of donor are not always humanitarian; "Aid" can take a military form; it can be used to support an incompetent or unjust government. Nor is aid always beneficial to the recipient country. It may be wasted on ill concerned of .prestige projects, or cause the government simply to relax it own efforts.

19. In the passage, it is discussed that the reasons behind the aid given to underdeveloped countries ............. .
a) are always of a military nature
b) are varied in purpose and in effect
c) invariably involved humanitarian principals
d) can be disregarded altogether
e) relate only to the technical needs of the recipient country

20. One concludes from the passage that what is generally referred to as "aid"............. .
a) is in fact, monetary support for development projects only
b) usually leads to the overthrow of the government of the recipient country
c) is actually one country's intervention in another country's internal affairs
d) does not necessarily benefit the recipient country
e) can really he regarded as a waste of resources

21. In accordance with the passage, unless they receive aid, underdeveloped countries ............. .
a) often face military coups
b) will loose their world-wide prestige
c) will be at the mercy of donor countries
d) will have to rely on foreign technical advice for many years to come
e) cannot provide money and human resources for development

Senegal is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90% of Senegal's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialization was boosted after 1973-following the fourfold increase in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Senegal lost important income. Oil production peaked when it reached 112 million tones in 1974. .

22. It is said in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 ..............
a) has less effect on Senegal's economy than might have been expected
b) contributed greatly to industrial development in Senegal
c) coincided with a considerable decrease in oil production
d) provided Senegal with a high revenue oil into the late 1980s
e) put a great deal of pressure on Senegal's oil reserves

23. It is concluded from the passage that only a fraction of Senegal's exports ............. .
a) are goods other than crude oil.
b) would be needed to support industrial development
c) were affected by the decrease in oil prices in the 1980s.
d) were oil-related
e) have benefited from price increases.

24. In accordance with the passage as long as the current rate of oil production is maintained ..............
a) world oil prices are not. expected to rise significantly.
b) Senegal's industrial development plans will soon be fully realised.
c) Senegal is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000
d) Senegal will continue to enjoy large revenues
e) the variety of goods exported from Senegal will be more.


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