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TEST – 17

Many researchers have commented on what seems to be the fact that fear plays a much smaller part than we should think it must in the life of an animal which lives dangerously. Terror he can know, and perhaps he knows it frequently. But it seems to last only a little longer than the immediate danger it helps him to avoid, instead of lingering, as in the human being it does, until it becomes a burden and a threat. The frightened bird resumes his song as soon as danger has passed and so does the frightened rabbit his games. It is almost as if they knew that "cowards die many times before their deaths; the valiant never taste of death but once.

1. The passage is concerned with ............. .
a) a comparison of animals and men
b) a comparison of fear and terror
c) animal traits
d) fear in animals
e) the nature of courage

2. The writer thinks that............. .
a) fear is a permanent form of terror
b) fear has a permanent effect on animals
c) fear is almost unknown by animals
d) some animals live less dangerously than men
e) animals remember fear only a short time

3. Cowards die many times before their deaths" implies ............. .
a) the coward is always seriously ill
b) many times the coward is almost caught is his misdeeds
c) the coward's frequent fears are often as bad as death
d) cowards many times wish they were dead
e) the coward has a lot of lives

Solitude is a great chastener after you accept it. It quietly eliminates all kinds of traits that were a part of you - among others the desire to pos., to keep your best food forever in evidence, to impress people as being something you would like to have them think you are even when you aren't. Some men I know are able to pose even in solitude; had they male servants they no doubt would be heroes to them. However, I find it the hardest sort of work myself, and as I am lazy I have stopped trying. To act without an audience is so tiresome and profitless that you gradually give it up and at last forget how to act at all. For you become more interested in making the acquaintance of yourself as you really are, which is a meeting that, in the haunts of men, rarely takes place. It is gratifying, for instance, to discover that you prefer to be clean rather than dirty even when there is no one but God to care; it is just as amusing to note, however, that for scrupulous cleanliness you are not inclined to make superhuman sacrifices, even though you used to believe you were. Clothes, you learn, with something of a shock, have for you no interest whatsoever.... You learn to regard a dress merely as a covering a precaution. For its colour and its cut you care nothing.

4. The passage is concerned with ..............
a) acting without an audience
b) carelessness in clothes
c) discoveries through solitude
d) being a hero to yourself
e) showing off to best advantage

5. A desire to show at your best is a trait that.............
a) goes with laziness
b) may disappear when you are alone
c) depends mainly on clothes
d) is inborn
e) is challenging for women

6. In solitude, clothes ............. .
a) make one careless
b) constitute one item that pleases their owner
c) are part of acting
d) are valued for their utility alone
e) are tiresome

Geometry is a very old science. We are told by Herodotus, a Greek historian, that geometry had its- origin in Egypt along the banks of the river Nile. The first record we have of its study is found in a manuscript written by Mimes, an Egyptian scholar, about 1550 B.C. This manuscript is believed to be a copy of a treatise which dated back probably, more than a thousand years, and describes the use of geometry at that time in a very crude form of surveying or measurement. In fact, geometry, which means "earth measurement," received its name in this manner. This re-measuring of the land was necessary because of the annual overflow of the river Nile and the consequent destroying of the boundaries of farm lands. This early geometry was very largely a list of rules or formulas for finding the areas of plane figures. Many of these rules were inaccurate, but in the main, they were fairly satisfactory.

7. The passage is concerned with ............. .
a) floods of the river Nile
b) beginnings of geometry
c) surveying in Egypt
d) manuscript of mimes
e) significance of geometry today

8. In developing geometry the early Egyptians were primarily dealt with ..............
a) discovering how formulas used in measuring were accurate
b) determining property boundaries
c) constructing a logical system of geometry
d) measuring the overflow of the Nile
e) establishing formulas

9. One of the most important factors in the development of geometry as science was ............. .
a) the inaccuracy of the early rules and calculations
b) Mimes' agreement
c) annual flooding of the Nile Valley
d) destruction of farm crops
e) an ancient manuscript copied by Egyptians

Computers have led to a greater change in our society in recent decades than any other force and are likely to continue to do so until the next century. The industry surrounding computers is growing quickly, providing employment for many but meanwhile making others redundant. Jobs that computers can do much more reliably, faster and cheaper are lost. The redeployment of labour and the prospect of increased leisure are causing social upheavals which require new ideas and significant changes of attitude. .

10. It is emphasized in the passage that the introduction, of i computers into daily life ............. .
a) has definitely solved the problem of unemployment
b) has had no effect on the traditional habits of society
c) can be regarded as the greatest technical achievement of the age
d) has led to an improvement in working conditions
e) has brought a lot of benefits but has also created some serious problems

11. In accordance with the passage, the impact computers have had on society.............
a) will certainly continue to increase right through the next century
b) has been unnecessarily exaggerated in recent years
c) has generally been confined to industrial life
d) has exceeded that of any other technological development in recent times
e) is very much less than it has been on industry

12. As it is emphasized in the passage, the widespread use of computers in industry............. .
a) has made considerable changes in the working system inevitable
b) has unfortunately increased production costs
c) has reduced the working hours but not the work load
d) will, in the next century, lead to even more disillusionment
e) has given rise to many new solutions to the problems of unemployment

The achievement of equality between men and women implies that they should have equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities to enable them to improve their skills and abilities for their own personal fulfilment and the benefit of society. To that end a reassessment of the functions and roles traditionally allotted to each sex within the family and the community at large is essential Governments should ensure both women and men equality before law, the provision of facilities for equality of educational opportunities and training equality in conditions of employment, including remuneration and adequate social security.

13. The passage points out that the question of equality between men and women ............. .
a) has seldom been treated seriously by the government
b) includes not only equality before the law, but also equality in
opportunities and exercise of rights
c) is mainly related to economic affairs
d) was never extended to include the field of politics
e) has been greatly exaggerated in recent decades

14. As it is emphasized in the passage, the equality of the sexes essentially means for everyone ..............
a) a wide range of benefits including job security and a> steady income
b) a full development, of individual talents and capabilities
c) the definition of the functions and roles each gender has in society
d) an overestimation in family responsibilities
e) a simple life style and fewer responsibilities

15. It is made obvious in the passage that the maintenance of equality between men and women in society ............. .
a) has been supplied in most Western societies
b) is primarily the responsibility of governments
c) is of little concern to governments
d) is never likely to be realized
e) has first to be achieved within a particular family.

In the mid-1970s, after 30 years of quick growth and unprecedented prosperity for the major Western economies, the prospects for continued growth became much less favourable. This resulted partly from the acceleration of inflation in many countries, bringing with it insecurity and militancy in industrial relations. However, the primary cause was the remarkable increase in the price of oil in 1974 and again in 1980, a fuel on which the Western economies had become heavily dependent. This produced a strong burst of inflation; and, because much of the oil revenue accruing to producers could not be spent, caused an unprecedented balance of payments problem and severe world recession.

16. One can conclude from the passage that, in the three decades prior to the mid-nineteen seventies ............. .
a) industrial relations in the West had deteriorated to a marked extent
b) most Western economies entered a -phase of insecurity and industrial decline
c) inflation in industrialized countries had reached an unprecedented level
d) the economic position had met with numerous setbacks
e) the West experienced a period of unparalleled economic boom

17. It is emphasized in the passage that rising oil prices in 1974 and 1980 ..............
a) opened the way to ruin of many Western economies
b) had actually very little impact on world economies
c) provided the West with the opportunity of developing alternative fuels
d) was a direct result of the growing inflation in the West
e) helped to prevent the rise the militancy in industrial relations

18. It is shown in the passage that the economic recession in the mid-1970 was largely due to the fact that............. .
a) most Western countries ignored their balance of payments policies
b) there was a high rate of unemployment in the West
c) Western economies failed to maintain good industrial relations
d) much of the profit made by oil producers was channelled back into world economies
e) Western economies were increasingly dependent upon oil imports

Tavi Fabrics is a Portuguese textile and clothing firm which, until recently, employed about 300 workers and had a turnover of 6 million pounds. Now, however, Tavi is facing serious problems. In the last two years its fabric sales have remained steady, but profits have declined sharply. This is because Pakistani and Italian suppliers have been forcing prices down. In the ready-to-wear market, the condition is much worse. Competition is cut-throat. Exporters from 24 low-cost countries are fighting for a share in the European market. Tavi is suffering from this competition. The stores are now bargaining hard over prices, and Tavi has already lost two important orders.

19. The passage shows the case of a textile firm which, ............. .
a) in recent years, has recovered its lost markets by introducing drastic measures
b) on the whole, has been showing a steady improvement in its position
c) owing to fierce international competition, is having 10 struggle to survive
d) quite unfairly, has laid off more than half of its work force
e) in the long run, seems likely to defeat its main competitors

20. We can conclude from the passage that the area which has been hit worst by international competition ............. .
a) is that of fabric sales in which Tavi has made great profits
b) has been textile industries of India and Pakistan
c) is the home market itself in which Tavi wed to be in the lead
d) is the clothing industry in Portugal
e) has been ready-to-wear market

21. One can understand from the passage that Tavi's problems
a) are due do the unrest among the workers
b) arise from the growing market pressure of low-cost countries
c) are linked with the lack of interest in the European market
d) must be related to the continuous rise in prices in textile
e) began with the loss of two large orders

In 1945 Japanese reign in Korea came to an end when the Russians occupied the northern part of the country and the Americans the south. It was planned that the country should be reunified after free elections, but in practice rival governments were set up. The Korean War broke out in 1950 when Communist North Korea under Kim IL-sung, invaded the South with Chinese support in an attempt to unify the country by force. South Korea was supported by a United Nations Force in what was really an American containment operation. In 1953 an armistice was signed and the demarcation line between North and South Korea was agreed.

22. In accordance with the passage, it was the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North that............
a) caused the outbreak of the Korean War
b) received the support of a United Nations Force
c) the Japanese had tried hard to prevent
d) made the signing of the armistice vital
e) induced the Chinese to abide by the decision of the United Nations

23. It is clear in the passage that the withdrawal of Japan from Korea in 1945 ............. .
a) lead to a period of greater economic prosperity
b) was the result of pressure from the United Nations
c) gave Kim IL-sung the chance to co - operate with the United States
d) was concluded after the signing of an armistice between the United States and Russia
e) was brought about, in part, by the Russians

24. As it is shown in the passage, the reunification of Korea after the Japanese withdrawal............. .
a) was the last thing America and Russia desired
b) was forestalled because of the drawing of the demarcation line between the North Korea and the South
c) did not take place because the North and the South set up their own separate governments
d) was to be followed by the holding of free elections and the establishment of a pro-American government
e) would have been achieved by Kim IL-sung but for the intervention of China


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