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TEST – 16

It isn't known when and where it all began, but throughout the ages and in the most diverse of all societies, precious stones have held an almost mystical power and significance. They shone round the necks and embellished the fingers of the ancient Egyptians; they gleamed from the turbans of great Mogul emperors and they were centrally the myth of the Holy Grail. From the earliest times than, precious stones have gained a value far beyond and rational assessment of their worth. Some of the best-known gems were deemed so valuable that they financed large armies; others led men to torture and murder, or literally changed the destinies of whole countries.

1. Precious stones are of much value for man as............. .
a) they are thought to be valuable and mysterious
b) they may be used as a financial source.
c) they are thought to have a historical value.
d) not many people can buy them.
e) nobody knows their mystical power.

2. Precious stones are concluded to ..............
a) have been the most important part of life throughout the history.
b) have destroyed many civilizations.
c) be the most necessary objects for happiness.
d) have been ornaments mostly used by kings and queens.
e) to be as old as history.

3. The passage concerns with ............. .
a) the power of precious stones
b) the valuable stones
c) treasure
d) the damnation of precious stones.
e) the mystery of precious stones

British cinema increasingly became a bargain-basement imitation of Hollywood. Instead of five large companies dominating production, distribution and exhibition, as in the U.S. it had two: Rank and ABPS Producers were so busy fighting their own corner, and so mesmerized by the success of Hollywood that they didn't have the strength to argue that keeping the industry fragmented and flexible learning from Hollywood's example without simply imitating its outward forms, might be a better way catering for a market the size of Britain than heading up the road of monopoly.

4. The author expresses that film makers in Britain ............. .
a) always compete with Americans
b) don't produce films solely of their own
c) don't make good films
d) see the cinema as a monopoly.
e) are leading the film industry to a negative way.
5. The author indicates that producers should keep the film industry alive by ............. .
a) making as many films as they can.
b) keeping in touch with the latest developments.
c) watching Hollywood films.
d) taking other producer's opinion.
e) giving the priority to the quality of films.

6. Which of the following is not expressed in the passage?
a) Producers are fighting their own corner.
b) There are no other good companies except for Rank and ABPC in the world
c) The British film industry should be developed
d) The British should make use of Hollywood's example.
e) The British producers imitate Hollywood.

When it was formed millions years ago the earth was a liquid. It is still having the process of cooling and many miles below the hard crust is still hot. However, in some places the heat is closer to the crust. These places are associated with volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. Drilling deep into the earth's crust we can reach rocks that are much warmer than those at the surface. Pumping water down into contact with these rocks and extracting the steam so produced is a source of energy that can be used to produce electricity. It is called geothermal energy.

7. It is expressed in the passage that under the hard surface of the earth, there ............. .
a) exists a hot core which can be used as energy
b) is a hot liquid layer which has never been drilled
c) seems to be a great deal of volcanic activity which threatens life
d) could be a number of hot sulphur springs, the main cause of volcanic activity.
e) has never been sufficient heat to melt rocks

8. In accordance with the passage, geothermal energy ............. .
a) can be produced both plentifully and cheaply
b) has been used by man for millions of years
c) is a bi-product of extensive volcanic activity
d) is obtained from the contact of water with the hot. rocks below the earth's surface
e) is recognized as the only form of energy that will never be used up

9. We can conclude from the passage that the earth's crust............. .
a) has completely stopped the process of cooling underneath
b) is a constant source of energy
c) is not suitable for drilling
d) is constantly warming and cooling due to volcanic activities.
e) varies in thickness from place to place

The Japanese have a special method for making decisions. They call it the consensus system. This is how it works. When a firm is thinking of taking a certain action, it encourages workers at all levels to discuss the proposal and give their opinions. The purpose is to reach consensus (general agreement).^ As soon as everyone agrees on the right course of action, the decision is taken. Due to this method, a group of workers, rather than one person, is responsible for company policies. One advantage of this is that decisions come from a mixture of experience from the top to the bottom of an enterprise, another advantage is that junior staff frequently suggest ideas for change. A disadvantage, perhaps, is that decision-making cannot be fast.

10. In view of the explanation shown in the passage, the consensus
system ............. .
a) can be explained as a collective decision making process.
b) has a number of drawbacks that cannot be overcome.
c) is falling out of favour as a result of the economic recession
d) gives undue importance to the views of the junior staff.
e) has already caused the laying off of numerous workers.

11. It is expressed in the passage that, with the Japanese style of decision making in industry ............. .
a) policies can go into effect faster
b) the working conditions are improved much more efficiently
c) the interaction between the management and the workers has reached a low ebb
d) the workers find themselves at the mercy of their employers
e) it tends to take a long time before any action is agreed upon.

12. In accordance with the passage, the most striking feature of the Japanese consensus system is that............. .
a) decisions are taken fast and accurately
b) the introduction of changes into a firms policy-making is more or less impossible
c) it is the point of view of management that prevails.
d) everyone, from the top to the bottom, in a firm has a fair ' share in decision-making process.
e) workers are rejected to have the right to discuss proposals in detail.

Rabies is a very frightening disease because once symptoms have developed it is always fatal. The disease is carried by a virus and it affects many species of animals, particularly dogs, foxes and bats. In Britain no indigenous case of human rabies has been reported since 1902 but it is widespread among animals in most parts of the world. Unfortunately in the last 30 years the disease has been spreading across Europe from the East, especially in foxes, and has now reached Northern France, For this reason strict animal quarantine laws are in force in Britain and it is rightly regarded as a serious offence to attempt to evade them.

13. As it is expressed in the passage, what makes rabies so dangerous a disease is that.............
a) very few people can recognise the symptoms
b) quarantine regulations concerning the disease are disregarded by most people.
c) as soon as it manifests itself in the patient it is already too late for any treatment
d) it is now threatening the whole of Europe from France to England.
e) during the last thirty years it seems to have become indigenous even in England.

14. The passage expresses that the British government has already taken strict measures to ............. .
a) ban the import of animals from France and other countries
b) encourage the keeping of pets in Britain
c) make sure that no rabies enters the country
d) deal with the recent outbreaks of rabies, especially in foxes in Britain
e) ensure that rabies patients will receive effective treatment

15. It is obviously stated in the passage that, for nearly a century,
a) thanks to new diagnostic techniques rabies has been confined to dogs, foxes and bats
b) rabies has been one of the mast frightening diseases in Europe
c) strict quarantine laws have been effective in Britain
d) there have been remarkable advances made in the treatment of rabies
e) no one in Britain has contracted rabies.

When we turn to the problem of fishing, we see that through a UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the world's countries have indicated that they recognize the risks of over-fishing, Nations can now declare 200 mile exclusive economic areas and exclusive fishing areas and control the catch at a level that is reasonable. Developing nations seem to be beginning to benefit from the new fisheries regime which offers the promise of allowing them to manage fishing
resources for optimum, that is long-term, benefits.

16.We can conclude from the passage that the statutory measures taken by the UN, regarding fishing, ............. .
a) are unlikely to be abided by, at least not in the near future
b) have been welcomed by all the member nations
c) have had no beneficial impact on the situation
d) came into effect too late
e) have unfortunately served the interests of only the developed nations

17. One major benefit arising out of the 200-mile exclusive fishing zone is as we conclude from the passage, to ............. .
a) to supply best use of the marine resources through international cooperation
b) keep under control the amount offish caught
c) ensure that an ever increasing quantity offish shall be caught
d) guide developing countries to develop their inefficient economies
e) prevent new fisheries from coming into being

18. It is expressed in the passage that in the management of fisheries
a) one cannot make a plan for the future
b) no consideration should be given to the amount of fishing.
c) the introduction of restrictive measures should be avoided.
d) one should give importance to future rather than to present gains
e) the 200-mile zone policy can be ignored.

General policy in Johoria has traditionally favoured foreign investment, Leaders of all political parties have been virtually unanimous in their belief that foreign investment in Johoria would contribute to speeding that country's economic development, a major priority of both the ruling coalition and opposition parties. Of special interest to the government were those industries that exported a significant share of their total production. Since Johoria had a relatively small population, there was a limit to the amount of goods that could be produced for the local market. Also, the government did not want to encourage foreign companies to compete with local industry although new industries might alleviate the already high unemployment rate.

19. The passage is connected with ..............
a) general economic policy of the world.
b) how to provide employment
c) the economics of developing countries
d) attracting foreign investment
e) foreign investment and economic development in Johoria

20. It can be understood that the aim of the government is to .............
a) decrease foreign investment
b) protect local industry from competition with foreign companies
c) improve a theory of foreign investment
d) increase unemployment benefits for workers
e) increase the indigenous population of Johoria

21. The word "alleviate" could best be substituted by which of the following?
a) undermine
b) jeopardise
c) increase
d) ease
e) determine

One of the most significant problems in teaching handwriting is presented by the left-handed child. The traditional policy has been to attempt to .induce all children to write with their right hands. Parents and teachers alike have an antipathy to the child's using her left hand. On the other hand, psychologists have shown beyond a doubt that some persons are naturally left-handed and that it is much more difficult for them to do any skilful act with the right hand than with the left hand. In addition, some believe that to compel a left-handed child to write with his right hand may make him nervous and may cause stammering. There seem to be some cases in which this is true, although in the vast majority of children who change over, no ill effects are observed. Furthermore, left-handedness sometimes seems to cause mirror writing - writing from right to left - and reversals in reading as reading "was" for "saw".

22. The passage is connected with ............. .
a) teaching handwriting
b) nervous aspects connected with handwriting
c) the problems of the left-handed children
d) a special problem in teaching handwriting
e) stammering, mirror writing and reversals

23. The author points out that............. .
a) parents should break children of left-handedness
b) left-handed children need special consideration
c) left-handed persons are inclined to stutter
d) left-handed people are less skilful than right-handed ones
e) left-handed persons are not cleverer than right-handed ones

24. The common policy in teaching handwriting has .............
a) led to failure in learning to write
b) dismayed the experts
c) goaled at mirror writing
d) made many children skilful with both hand
e) resulted in unsolved problems


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