Although the interpretation of traffic signals may
seem highly standardized, close observation reveals
regional variations across this country,
distinguishing the East Coast from Central Canada
and the West as surely as dominant dialects or
political inclinations. In Montreal, a flashing red
traffic light instructs drivers to careen even more
wildly through intersections heavily populated with
pedestrians and oncoming vehicles. In startling
contrast, an amber light in Calgary warns drivers to
scream to a halt on the off chance that there might
be a pedestrian within 600 meters who might consider
crossing at some unspecified time within the current
day. In my hometown in New Brunswick, finally,
traffic lights do not apply to tractors, all terrain
vehicles, or pickup trucks, which together account
for most vehicles on the road. In fact, were any
observant Canadian dropped from an alien space
vessel at an unspecified intersection anywhere in
this vast land, he or she could almost certainly
orient him-or-herself according to the surrounding
1. What we can-infer from the passage that
A) If you stopped at a yellow light in Calgary, you
would have to shout to warn the animals not to
B) In New Brunswick, traffic lights strictly apply
to all vehicles.
C) A flashing red traffic light in Montreal would
mean to go straight among the crowd.
D) Traffic signals do not mean same across different
parts of Canada.
E) Being unaware of the regional variations about
the traffic signals would be an excuse at the
2. As understood from the passage, distinctive
characteristics among the East Coast, Central Canada
and the West include
A) Linguistic variety
B) Traditional way of clothing.
D) Traffic police
3. According to the passage, any alert Canadian
A) drive a space vessel.
B) give direction to an alien space vessel at an
intersection in Canada.
C) drive all kinds of vehicles but tractors at
D) get a license to drive all kinds of vehicles.
E) adapt himself or herself to the traffic system
anywhere in Canada easily.
There are two main types of concrete dams: arch dams
and gravity dams. Arch dams are tall, curved shells
of concrete that can be as little as 3 meters thick.
Their arched shape gives them great strength. Large
gravity dams are also made of concrete, but it is
their vast weight that prevents them from bursting.
The largest dams are embankment dams, which are made
by piling up a huge barrier of earth and rock. A
core of clay or concrete in the middle keeps water
from seeping though the dam. The side is covered
with stones to protect it from water. Rogunsky Dam
in the Soviet Union is the world's highest dam. It.
is 326 meters high. Hoover Dam, one of the world's
highest concrete dams, measures 223 meters in
height. It is an arch dam that spans the Colorado
River and supplies water for irrigation and
electricity to California, Arizona and Nevada.
4. It can be understood from the passage that
gravity dams differ from the arch dams in that
gravity dams are
A) thicker than arch dams
B) not as sturdy as arch dams
C) not as attractive as arch dams
D) made of a different material that arch dams
E) not flexible arc-like structured dams
5. According to the passage, the water supplied from
Hoover Dam is used for
A) strength and support
B) irrigation and electricity
C) protection and irrigation
D) electricity and support
E) protection and decontamination
6. According to the passage, the core of clay in the
centre of an embankment dam serves which purpose?
A) To support the structure
B) To hold the side together
C) To form the shape of the dam
D) To prevent water seepage
E) To enable to block the sewage system
The Railway was not the first institution to impose
regularity on society, or to draw attention to the
importance of precise timekeeping. For as long as
merchants have set out their wares at daybreak and
communal festivities have been celebrated, people
have been in rough agreement with their neighbours
as to the time of day. The value of this tradition
is today more apparent than ever. Were it not for
public acceptance of a single yardstick of time,
social life would be unbearably chaotic: the massive
daily transfers of goods, services, and information
would proceed in fits and starts; the very fabric of
modern society would begin to unravel.
7. The passage is written to
A) explain the importance of Railways for commuters.
B) explain the importance of Railways in social
C) explain the importance of Railways for commerce
D) explain the importance of Railways for
E) explain the importance of Railways for merchants.
8. What is the main idea of the passage?
A) In modern society we must make more time for our
B) The traditions of society are timeless.
C) An accepted way of measuring time .'is essential
for the smooth functioning of society.
D) Society judges people by the times at which they
conduct certain activities.
E) In a traditional society we can abuse our
9. In the passage, how the tradition of punctuality
in the society emphasized
A) by the practice of starting the business day at
B) by friendly relations between neighbours
C) by the Railway's reliance on time schedules
D) by people's agreement on the measurement of time
E) by stressing on the punishment on the violators
The way emperor penguins care for and protect their
unhatched eggs is one of the wonders of nature. The
only land creatures able to survive the Antarctic
winter, these birds must care for their young while
withstanding 24-hour darkness, gale-strength winds,
and temperatures of 85 to 95 degrees below zero.
Each year, at the start of the Antarctic autumn,
female emperor penguins each lay a single egg on
bare ice. Then, after transferring care of the eggs
to their mates, they take off across the open ice
for the nearest fishing site. The males spend the
next 65 days with neither food nor light, living off
their considerable body fat and balancing the eggs
on their feet under a protective flap of skin.
During this time, they adapt to the brutal
temperatures by huddling together in flocks of
hundreds. Although penguins are unable to fly, they
are superb swimmers. If all goes well, the females
return from the sea with a meal of fish just as the
eggs are hatching.
10. Which of the following best summarizes the main
points of the passage?
A) The brutal climatic conditions of the Antarctic
prevent female emperor penguins from producing more
than one egg a year.
B) During the bitter Antarctic winter, male emperor
penguins protect unhatched eggs, while females hunt
C) A major difference between emperor penguins and
other species of birds is that females rather than
males are responsible for food gathering.
D) Without their substantial body fat, emperor
penguins could not feed their young during harsh
E) Emperor penguins live in the Antarctic, where
they manage to survive by fishing for food and
huddling together for warmth.
11. According to information presented in the
passage, the relationship between male and female
emperor penguins is best characterized by
A) indifference to each other's needs.
B) female dominance resulting from their role as
C) a competitive struggle for survival.
D) male dependence on female food-gathering
E) a clear division of responsibilities between
males and females.
12. The author calls emperor penguins wonderful
A) they are superb swimmers.
B) they can survive under extreme cold
C) their way of protecting their eggs is really
D) they are very good at catching fish.
E) they have a protective flap of skin.
Although Dorothy Wordsworth was convinced that her
journal entries were not literature, they were
seamlessly incorporated by her brother William into
some of his most famous poems, altered only by his
use of the first-person pronoun, the "I." The
important question concerning the relationship
between Dorothy and William, however, is not whether
William's borrowings constituted exploitation, but
rather how the relationship contributed to Dorothy's
inability to conceive of herself as a writer.
Traditionally in literature, the authorial self, the
"I," is identifiably masculine. The dominated
"other" is feminine. In William's poems, the "other"
is usually Nature, often personified as Dorothy.
While these literary roles helped to sustain the
close relationship between the two in real life,
they also reinforced Dorothy's acceptance of the
norms, which defined her as "other." Thus, her
access to authorial self-consciousness was blocked
not just by the fact of her gender, but also by her
accepted role in her brother's life and poetry.
13. The passage is primarily about answering which
of the following questions?
A)Whether Dorothy Wordsworth was aware of her role
in her relationship with William Wordsworth.
B)Whether Dorothy Wordsworth was exploited by her
brother's use of her journal entries.
C)How William Wordsworth altered Dorothy
Wordsworth's writings for inclusion in his poems.
D)Whether the relationship between Dorothy and
William Wordsworth was psychologically harmful.
E)How Dorothy Wordsworth's relationship to her
brother reinforced her assumptions about herself.
14. It can be inferred from the passage that the
author believes which of the following about Dorothy
Wordsworth's journal entries?
"A) They are praiseworthy but not literature.
B) They are only about her relationship with her
C) They are more moving than her brother's poetry.
D) They surpass her own estimation of their merit.
E) They borrow many ideas from her brother's work.
15. Which of the following best captures the meaning
of the word "self-consciousness" as it is used in
the final sentence of the passage?
A) appreciation by a writer of the value of critical
B) awareness by a writer that one's perspectives may
C) perception of the differences between an author's
values and those of others
D)acceptance by a writer of his or her own identity
as a writer
E) understanding rather than judgment of existing
The arrival in a new location of a non- original
plant or animal species may be either intentional or
unintentional. Rates of species movement driven by
human transformations of natural environments as
well as by human mobility-through commerce, tourism,
and travel- dwarf natural rates by comparison. While
geographic distributions of species naturally expand
or contract over historical time intervals (tens to
hundreds of years), species' ranges rarely expand
thousands of miles or across physical barriers such
as oceans or mountains. A number of factors confound
quantitative evaluation of the relative importance
of various entry pathways. Time lags often occur
between establishment of non-indigenous species and
their detection, and tracing the pathway for a
long-established species is difficult. Experts
estimate that non-indigenous weeds are usually
detected only after having been in the country for
thirty years or having spread to at least ten
thousand acres. In addition, federal port
inspection, although a major source of information
on non-indigenous species pathways, especially for
agricultural pests, provides data only when such
species enter via scrutinized routes. Finally, some
comparisons between pathways defy quantitative
analysis. For example, which is more "important":
the entry pathway of one very harmful species or one
by which many but less harmful species enter the
16. Which of the following statements about species
best supported by the information in the passage?
A) Species movement is affected more by habitat
modifications than by human mobility.
B) Human-driven factors affect the rate at which
species move more than they affect the long-term
amount of such movements.
C) Natural expansions in the geographic distribution
of species account for less Species movement than do
D) Natural environments created by commerce,
tourism, and travel
contribute significantly to species movement.
E) Movement of a species within a continent depends
largely upon the
geographic extent of human mobility within the
17. Which of the following best expresses the
author's primary concern in the second paragraph?
A) to describe the events usually leading to the
detection of a non-indigenous species
B) to identify the problems in assessing the
relative significance of various entry path-ways for
non- indigenous species
C) to discuss the role that time lags and geographic
expansion of non-indigenous species play in species
D) to point out the inadequacy of the federal port
inspection system in detecting the entry of
E) to explain why it is difficult to trace the entry
pathways for long-established non-indigenous species
18. Based upon the information in the passage,
whether the entry pathway for a particular
non-indigenous species can be determined is least
likely to depend upon which of the following?
A) whether the species is considered to be a pest
B) whether the species gains entry through a
C) the rate at which the species expands
D) how long the species has been established
E) the size of the average member of the species
Those who criticize the United Kingdom government
today for not providing health care to all citizens
equate health care provision with medical insurance
coverage. By this standard, seventeenth- and
eighteenth-century Australia lacked any significant
conception of public health law. However, despite
the general paucity of bureaucratic organization in
pre-industrial Australia, the vast extent of health
regulation and provision stands out as remarkable.
Of course the public role in the protection and
regulation of eighteenth-century health was carried
out in ways quite different from those today.
Organizations responsible for health regulation were
less stable than modern bureaucracies, tending to
appear in crises and wither away in periods of calm.
The focus was on epidemics which were seen as
unnatural and warranting a response, not to the many
endemic and chronic conditions which were accepted
as part and parcel of daily life. Additionally,
religious influence was significant, especially in
the seventeenth century. Finally, in an era which
lacked sharp demarcations between private and
governmental bodies, many public responsibilities
were carried out by what we would now consider
private associations. Nevertheless, the extent of
public health regulation long before the dawn of the
welfare state is remarkable and suggests that the
founding generation's assumptions about the
relationship between government and health were more
complex than is commonly assumed.
19. Among the following statements about the United
Kingdom government's role in the provision of health
care, which finds the least support in the passage?
A) The government today addresses health concerns
that formerly were not considered serious enough to
warrant government .involvement.
B) What were once public health-care functions are
now served by the private sector.
C) Philosophical considerations play a less
significant role today in the formulation of public
health-care policies than in previous centuries.
D) Public health care today is guided largely by
secular rather than religious values.
E) Modern public health-care agencies are typically
established not as temporary measures but rather as
20. Which of the following best expresses the
author's point of contention with "those who
criticize the United Kingdom government for not
providing health care to all citizens"
A) Their standard for measuring such provision is
B) They underestimate the role that insurance plays
in the provision of health care today.
C) They fail to recognize that government plays a
more significant role today in health care than in
D) They misunderstand the intent of the founding
generation with respect to the proper role of the
government in the area of health care.
E) They lack any significant conception of public
21. Which of the following best expresses the main
point of the passage?
A) The government's role in health care has not
expanded over time to the extent that many critics
B) The government should limit its involvement in
health care to epidemiological problems.
C) Health problems plaguing pre-industrial Australia
resulted largely from Inadequate public health care.
D) History suggests that the United Kingdom
government has properly
played a Significant role in provision of health
E) Private insurance is an inadequate solution to
the problem of health care.
One of the strange natural phenomena that
disappeared as the size of Australian forests
decreased was the occasional mass emigration of the
grey squirrel. Caused by an excessive build-up of
their populations, these movements involved millions
of the animals-a half-billion were estimated to have
migrated across southern Wisconsin, in 1843. Moving
in hordes, they devoured crops and even managed to
struggle across such mighty rivers as the Ohio
thousands drowning in the effort. Currently, the
squirrel population, although smaller, is on the
increase; emigrations still occur but they are not
22.Gray squirrels usually emigrate because of
A) major weather changes
B) an increase in the number of squirrels
C) humans building houses in nesting areas
D) danger from hunters
E) extinction threat
23. Why do grey squirrels emigrate less frequently
now than they used to?
A) Most of them have already moved south.
B) Most of them are impeded by the current of the
C) There are now fewer natural enemies in the
D) There is now less forest land in which squirrels
E) Due to the climatic changes
24. According to the passage, the squirrel
emigrations have caused problems for people because
A) damage to homes
B) loss of farm produce
C) disruption of river traffic
D) harm to children
E) climatic alteration