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Mustang is a small, semi-wild horse of Mexico and the western plains of the United States. Descendants of Arabian and barb horses brought ___(1)___ North America by Spanish explorers in the 16th century and ___(2)___ combined with other breeds; mustangs ____(3)____ themselves to the western habitat and multiplied in large numbers. Subsequently many of them were captured, domesticated, and bred by Native Americans. These domesticated horses became known ____(4)___ Indian ponies. They had remarkable endurance and intelligence and were valued as saddle ponies. Today the several thousand mustangs that remain in the wild are threatened ___(5)____ destruction by ranchers who claim they damage grazing lands; they are also rounded up and used for dog food.

1) A) to B) from C) at D) on E) out of

2) A) late B) lately C) latest D) latter E) later

3) A) adopted B) corrupted C) pacified
D) adapted E) wrapped

4) A) as B) to C) for D) with E) in

5) A) by B) with C) from D) onto E) into

Cyprus is an island ____(6)___ in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, about 40 miles south of Turkey, 60 miles west of Syria, and 480 miles southeast of mainland Greece. Its maximum length, ____(7)___ Cape Arnauti in the west to Cape Apostolos Andreas at the end of the north-eastern peninsula, ___(8)___ 140 miles; the maximum north-south extent is 60 miles. With an area of 3,572 square miles, it is the third largest Mediterranean island. Cyprus ____(9)___ of two states, the Republic of Cyprus, which occupies the southern two-thirds of the country, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which ____(10)___ its declaration of independence in 1983 has been recognized only by Turkey.

6) A) saturated B) gathered C) located
D) ranged E) named

7) A) from B) till C) by D) within E) since

8) A) are B) have C) has D) were E) is

9) A) deprives B) disposes C) consists
D) wards E) smacks

10) A) before B) as soon as C) by the time
D) until E) since

___(11)___ to a Cretan myth that was adopted by the Greeks, Cronus, king of the Titans, upon learning that one of his children was fated to dethrone him, swallowed his children __(12)___ they were born. But Rhea, his wife, saved the infant Zeus by substituting a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes for Cronus to swallow and hiding Zeus in a cave on Crete. There he was nursed by the nymph Amalthaea and guarded by the Curetes, who clashed their weapons to ___(13)___ the baby's cries. After Zeus grew to manhood he led a revolt ____(14)___ the Titans and succeeded in dethroning Cronus, perhaps with the assistance of his brothers Hades and Poseidon, with ____(15)___ he then divided dominion over the world.

11) A) Due B) Owing C) In order
D) In addition E) According

12) A) before B) the minute C) until D) while
E) now that

13) A) dangle B) debilitate C) dictate D) disguise E) dodge

14) A) against B) among C) across D) at
E) after

15) A) who B) that C) whom D) whose
E) which

The Normans were originally pagan barbarian pirates from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland who began to make destructive plundering raids _____(16)___ European coastal settlements in the 8th century. During the later 9th century ____(17)___ raids on the northern and western coastlands of France grew ____(18)___ scale and frequency, and the Vikings had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine River by about 900. A Viking named Rollo, who had already won a ___(19)___ as a great leader of Viking raiders in Scotland and Ireland, soon ____(20)___ as the outstanding personality among the new settlers.

16) A) on B) in C) into D) at E) under

17) A) they B) them C) its D) their E) it

18) A) on B) in C) at D) above E) below

19) A) reputation B) repetition C) recognizance
D) recognizor E) reduction

20) A) merged B) diverted C) distinguished
D) emerged E) extinguished

Vikings are the member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and ___(21)___ disruptive influence profoundly affected European history. ___(22)___ pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were probably prompted to undertake their raids by a combination of factors ___(23)___ from overpopulation at home to the relative helplessness of victims abroad. The exact ethnic composition of the Viking armies is unknown ___(24)___ particular cases, but the Vikings' expansion in the Baltic lands and in Russia can reasonably be ___(25)___ to the Swedes.

21) A) whose B) of which C) who D) that
E) when

22) A) This B) That C) Their D) These E) Its

23) A) hailing B) ranging C) departing
D) shrinking E) telling

24) A) in B) on C) at D) to E) from

25) A) contributed B) ascribed C) attributed
D) demise E) confer

Charles Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity than had any ____(26)___ author during his lifetime. Much in his work could appeal to simple and sophisticated, to the poor and to the Queen, and technological developments as well as the qualities of his work enabled his fame to spread worldwide very ___(27)___. His long career saw ____(28)___ in the reception and sales of individual novels, but ____(29)___ of them was negligible or uncharacteristic or disregarded, and, ____(30)____ he is now admired for aspects and phases of his work that were given less weight by his contemporaries, his popularity has never ceased and his present critical standing is higher than ever before.

26) A) initial B) primary C) prior
D) previous E) early

27) A) quicker B) quickest C) quick
D) quickness E)quickly

28) A) enumerations B) fluctuations
C) elevations D) blasphemies
E) shepherds

29) A) any B) none C) every D) each
E) some

30) A) therefore B) moreover C) despite
D) in order that E) though

Whales have exploited ____(31)___ the available aquatic habitats—the ocean sand the seas connected with them, as well as estuaries and rivers. They are especially numerous in the Antarctic Ocean, which is rich ___(32)___ plankton and other marine life. Some whales are social, travelling in groups called schools, herds, pods, or gams. Whales produce two basic types of underwater sounds. The low-pitched signals, ___(33)___ the barks, whistles, screams, and moans audible to humans, are used in social communication, ____(34)___ the brief clicks of high-intensity sound, usually inaudible to the unaided human ear, are used to ____(35)___ or to identify food sources.

31) A) each B) all C) many D) much E) plenty

32) A) in B) on C) at D) from E) over

33) A) the same as B) similar to
C) different from D) such as
E) like

34) A) as B) while C) contrary to D) by contrast E) even so

35) A) navigate B) separate C) estimate
D) devastate E) escalate

___(36)___ of the great figures of the 20th century, Atatürk rescued the surviving Turkish remnant of the defeated Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. He galvanized his people _____(37)___ invading Greek forces who sought to impose the Allied will upon the war-weary Turks and repulsed aggression by British, French, and Italian troops. ____(38)___ these struggles, he founded the modern Republic of Turkey, ____(39)____ he is still revered by the Turks. He succeeded in restoring to his people pride in their Turkishness, coupled with a new sense of accomplishment ___(40)___ their backward nation was brought into the modern world.

36) A) Many B) Much C) Plenty D) One
E) Some

37) A) against B) among C) across D) onto
E) into

38) A) In terms of B) In case of
C) With regard to D) Under
E) Through

39) A) on which B) in which C) at which
D) with which E) for which

40) A) because of B) on account of
C) inasmuch as D) due to E) notwithstanding





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